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Gene Review

Gcg  -  glucagon

Mus musculus

Synonyms: GLP-1, Glu, Glucagon, PPG, glucagon-like peptide I
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Disease relevance of Gcg


Psychiatry related information on Gcg


High impact information on Gcg


Chemical compound and disease context of Gcg


Biological context of Gcg


Anatomical context of Gcg


Associations of Gcg with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Gcg

  • In this report, we show that Pax6 additionally binds the glucagon gene promoter G1-element and forms a transcriptionally active complex with another homeodomain protein, Cdx2/3 [29].
  • Pax6 and Cdx2/3 form a functional complex on the rat glucagon gene promoter G1-element [29].
  • Adenylate cyclase activity and [125I]iodoglucagon binding were measured in the plasma membrane preparations over a wide range of glucagon concentrations [30].

Co-localisations of Gcg


Regulatory relationships of Gcg

  • We show herein that ngn3-positive cells coexpress neither insulin nor glucagon, suggesting that ngn3 marks early precursors of pancreatic endocrine cells [32].
  • However, the absence of PC2 activity in alphaTC-DeltaPC2 leads to a complete block in the production of mature glucagon [33].
  • Somatostatin and glucose both markedly inhibited carbachol-induced glucagon secretion [26].
  • By E18.5 activin B was localized to forming islets where cells coexpressed glucagon and were arranged in the mantle formation characteristic of mature alpha cells [24].
  • In contrast to Pdx 1-deficient mice, the early glucagon-expressing cells do not develop in Raldh2 knockout embryos [34].

Other interactions of Gcg

  • 2. Cells from two different noninsulinoma tumors, when adapted to culture, began to express either insulin, glucagon, or somatostatin [35].
  • Intraperitoneal delivery of 0.5 microg glucagon/h in PC2(-/-) mice resulted in the normalization of blood glucose concentrations [2].
  • Neither PC1 nor PC2 processed glucagon from proglucagon in vitro [36].
  • In contrast, no significant perturbation in the insulin response to perfused glucagon was detected under conditions of low (4.4 mmol/l) or high (16.6 mmol/l) glucose in GLP-1R -/- mice [37].
  • The serum glucagon levels in IR-deficient and nondiabetic littermates were comparable [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gcg


  1. Defective prohormone processing and altered pancreatic islet morphology in mice lacking active SPC2. Furuta, M., Yano, H., Zhou, A., Rouillé, Y., Holst, J.J., Carroll, R., Ravazzola, M., Orci, L., Furuta, H., Steiner, D.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Glucagon replacement via micro-osmotic pump corrects hypoglycemia and alpha-cell hyperplasia in prohormone convertase 2 knockout mice. Webb, G.C., Akbar, M.S., Zhao, C., Swift, H.H., Steiner, D.F. Diabetes (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Elimination of glucagon-like peptide 1R signaling does not modify weight gain and islet adaptation in mice with combined disruption of leptin and GLP-1 action. Scrocchi, L.A., Hill, M.E., Saleh, J., Perkins, B., Drucker, D.J. Diabetes (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Evaluation of the antidiabetic activity of DPP IV resistant N-terminally modified versus mid-chain acylated analogues of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. Irwin, N., Clarke, G.C., Green, B.D., Greer, B., Harriott, P., Gault, V.A., O'Harte, F.P., Flatt, P.R. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Interactions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) with the blood-brain barrier. Kastin, A.J., Akerstrom, V., Pan, W. J. Mol. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Brain glucagon-like peptide 1 signaling controls the onset of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and reduces energy expenditure. Knauf, C., Cani, P.D., Ait-Belgnaoui, A., Benani, A., Dray, C., Cabou, C., Colom, A., Uldry, M., Rastrelli, S., Sabatier, E., Godet, N., Waget, A., Pénicaud, L., Valet, P., Burcelin, R. Endocrinology (2008) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of food deprivation and hormones of glucose homeostasis on the acetyl CoA carboxylase activity in mouse brain: a potential role of acc in the regulation of energy balance. Karami, K.J., Coppola, J., Krishnamurthy, K., Llanos, D.J., Mukherjee, A., Venkatachalam, K. Nutrition & metabolism [electronic resource]. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Central action of glucagon. Morawska, D., Sieklucka-Dziuba, M., Kleinrok, Z. Polish journal of pharmacology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Control of endodermal endocrine development by Hes-1. Jensen, J., Pedersen, E.E., Galante, P., Hald, J., Heller, R.S., Ishibashi, M., Kageyama, R., Guillemot, F., Serup, P., Madsen, O.D. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Getting to the guts of enteroendocrine differentiation. Skipper, M., Lewis, J. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Early diabetes and abnormal postnatal pancreatic islet development in mice lacking Glut-2. Guillam, M.T., Hümmler, E., Schaerer, E., Yeh, J.I., Birnbaum, M.J., Beermann, F., Schmidt, A., Dériaz, N., Thorens, B., Wu, J.Y. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Ectopic expression of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) receptors in liver modulates organ function to regulate blood glucose by TRH. Wolff, G., Mastrangeli, A., Heinflink, M., Falck-Pedersen, E., Gershengorn, M.C., Crystal, R.G. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Calmodulin-induced early-onset diabetes in transgenic mice. Epstein, P.N., Overbeek, P.A., Means, A.R. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. The effects of exercise and food restriction on obesity and diabetes in young ob/ob mice. Dubuc, P.U., Cahn, P.J., Willis, P. International journal of obesity. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Neonatal capsaicin-treatment in mice: effects on pancreatic peptidergic nerves and 2-deoxy-D-glucose-induced insulin and glucagon secretion. Karlsson, S., Sundler, F., Ahrén, B. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of a beta 3-adrenoceptor agonist, BRL 26830A, on insulin and glucagon release in mice. Yoshida, T., Hiraoka, N., Kondo, M. Endocrinol. Jpn. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Responsiveness to glucagon in fetal hearts. Species variability and apparent disparities between changes in beating, adenylate cyclase activation, and cyclic AMP concentration. Wildenthal, K., Allen, D.O., Karlsson, J., Wakeland, J.R., Clark, C.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. MDL 29311. Antioxidant with marked lipid- and glucose-lowering activity in diabetic rats and mice. Johnson, M.B., Heineke, E.W., Rhinehart, B.L., Sheetz, M.J., Barnhart, R.L., Robinson, K.M. Diabetes (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Lower blood glucose, hyperglucagonemia, and pancreatic alpha cell hyperplasia in glucagon receptor knockout mice. Gelling, R.W., Du, X.Q., Dichmann, D.S., Romer, J., Huang, H., Cui, L., Obici, S., Tang, B., Holst, J.J., Fledelius, C., Johansen, P.B., Rossetti, L., Jelicks, L.A., Serup, P., Nishimura, E., Charron, M.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Chronic exposure to GLP-1R agonists promotes homologous GLP-1 receptor desensitization in vitro but does not attenuate GLP-1R-dependent glucose homeostasis in vivo. Baggio, L.L., Kim, J.G., Drucker, D.J. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Glucagon stimulates exocytosis in mouse and rat pancreatic alpha-cells by binding to glucagon receptors. Ma, X., Zhang, Y., Gromada, J., Sewing, S., Berggren, P.O., Buschard, K., Salehi, A., Vikman, J., Rorsman, P., Eliasson, L. Mol. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Embryogenesis of the murine endocrine pancreas; early expression of pancreatic polypeptide gene. Herrera, P.L., Huarte, J., Sanvito, F., Meda, P., Orci, L., Vassalli, J.D. Development (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Glucagon-like peptide-1 enhances production of insulin in insulin-producing cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. Bai, L., Meredith, G., Tuch, B.E. J. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Ontogeny of activin B and follistatin in developing embryonic mouse pancreas: implications for lineage selection. Maldonado, T.S., Kadison, A.S., Crisera, C.A., Grau, J.B., Alkasab, S.L., Longaker, M.T., Gittes, G.K. J. Gastrointest. Surg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Glucagon promotes cAMP-response element-binding protein phosphorylation via activation of ERK1/2 in MIN6 cell line and isolated islets of Langerhans. Dalle, S., Longuet, C., Costes, S., Broca, C., Faruque, O., Fontés, G., Hani, e.l. .H., Bataille, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Influences of gastro-intestinal polypeptides and glucose on glucagon secretion induced by cholinergic stimulation. Ahrén, B., Lundquist, I. Horm. Metab. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  27. Influence of glucagon, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, pancreatic polypeptide and somatostatin on beta-adrenergically induced insulin secretion in the mouse. Ahrén, B., Lundquist, I. Diabète & métabolisme. (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. Improving function and survival of pancreatic islets by endogenous production of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Wideman, R.D., Yu, I.L., Webber, T.D., Verchere, C.B., Johnson, J.D., Cheung, A.T., Kieffer, T.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Pax6 and Cdx2/3 form a functional complex on the rat glucagon gene promoter G1-element. Andersen, F.G., Heller, R.S., Petersen, H.V., Jensen, J., Madsen, O.D., Serup, P. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Membrane receptor function and the loss of glucagon-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in hepatomas. Mirel, R.D., Morris, H.P., DiAugustine, R.P. Endocrinology (1978) [Pubmed]
  31. Expression of the NK-1 receptor on islet cells and invading immune cells in the non-obese diabetic mouse. Persson-Sjögren, S., Lejon, K., Holmberg, D., Forsgren, S. J. Autoimmun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. neurogenin3 is required for the development of the four endocrine cell lineages of the pancreas. Gradwohl, G., Dierich, A., LeMeur, M., Guillemot, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Altered proglucagon processing in an alpha-cell line derived from prohormone convertase 2 null mouse islets. Webb, G.C., Dey, A., Wang, J., Stein, J., Milewski, M., Steiner, D.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Dorsal pancreas agenesis in retinoic acid-deficient Raldh2 mutant mice. Martín, M., Gallego-Llamas, J., Ribes, V., Kedinger, M., Niederreither, K., Chambon, P., Dollé, P., Gradwohl, G. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Targeted oncogenesis of hormone-negative pancreatic islet progenitor cells. Jetton, T.L., Moates, J.M., Lindner, J., Wright, C.V., Magnuson, M.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Processing of mouse proglucagon by recombinant prohormone convertase 1 and immunopurified prohormone convertase 2 in vitro. Rothenberg, M.E., Eilertson, C.D., Klein, K., Zhou, Y., Lindberg, I., McDonald, J.K., Mackin, R.B., Noe, B.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. Enhanced glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide secretion and insulinotropic action in glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor -/- mice. Pederson, R.A., Satkunarajah, M., McIntosh, C.H., Scrocchi, L.A., Flamez, D., Schuit, F., Drucker, D.J., Wheeler, M.B. Diabetes (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Endocrine pancreas in insulin receptor-deficient mouse pups. Jackerott, M., Baudry, A., Lamothe, B., Bucchini, D., Jami, J., Joshi, R.L. Diabetes (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Neuropeptides of the vasoactive intestinal peptide/helodermin/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide family elevate plasma cAMP in mice: comparison with a range of other regulatory peptides. Absood, A., Chen, D., Håkanson, R. Regul. Pept. (1992) [Pubmed]
  40. Morphological and functional characterization of beta TC-6 cells--an insulin-secreting cell line derived from transgenic mice. Poitout, V., Stout, L.E., Armstrong, M.B., Walseth, T.F., Sorenson, R.L., Robertson, R.P. Diabetes (1995) [Pubmed]
  41. Glucagon and insulin from lean rats and genetically obese fatty rats: studies by radioimmunoassay, radioreceptorassay and bioassay. Laburthe, M., Rançon, F., Freychet, P., Rosselin, G. Diabetologia (1975) [Pubmed]
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