The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Differential responses to CO2 and sympathetic stimulation in the cerebral and femoral circulations in humans.

The relative importance of CO2 and sympathetic stimulation in the regulation of cerebral and peripheral vasculatures has not been previously studied in humans. We investigated the effect of sympathetic activation, produced by isometric handgrip (HG) exercise, on cerebral and femoral vasculatures during periods of isocapnia and hypercapnia. In 14 healthy males (28.1 +/- 3.7 (mean +/- S.D.) years), we measured flow velocity (VP; transcranial Doppler ultrasound) in the middle cerebral artery during euoxic isocapnia (ISO, +1 mmHg above rest) and two levels of euoxic hypercapnia ( HC5, end-tidal P(CO(2)), P(ET,CO2), = +5 mmHg above ISO; HC10, P(ET,CO2) = +10 above ISO). Each P(ET,CO2) level was maintained for 10 min using the dynamic end-tidal forcing technique, during which increases in sympathetic activity were elicited by a 2-min HG at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction. Femoral blood flow (FBF; Doppler ultrasound), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography) and mean arterial pressure (MAP; Portapres) were also measured. Hypercapnia increased VP and FBF by 5.0 and 0.6% mmHg-1, respectively, and MSNA by 20-220%. Isometric HG increased MSNA by 50% and MAP by 20%, with no differences between ISO, HC5 and HC10. During the ISO HG there was an increase in cerebral vascular resistance (CVR; 20 +/- 11%), while VP remained unchanged. During HC5 and HC10 HG, VP increased (13% and 14%, respectively), but CVR was unchanged. In contrast, HG-induced sympathetic stimulation increased femoral vascular resistance (FVR) during ISO, HC5 and HC10 (17-41%), while there was a general decrease in FBF below ISO. The HG-induced increases in MSNA were associated with increases in FVR in all conditions (r = 0.76-0.87), whereas increases in MSNA were associated with increases in CVR only during ISO (r = 0.91). In summary, in the absence of hypercapnia, HG exercise caused cerebral vasoconstriction, myogenically and/or neurally, which was reflected by increases in CVR and a maintained VP. In contrast, HG increased FVR during conditions of ISO, HC5 and HC10. Therefore, the cerebral circulation is more responsive to alterations in PCO2, and less responsive to sympathetic stimulation than the femoral circulation.[1]


  1. Differential responses to CO2 and sympathetic stimulation in the cerebral and femoral circulations in humans. Ainslie, P.N., Ashmead, J.C., Ide, K., Morgan, B.J., Poulin, M.J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities