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Gene Review

CYCSP25  -  cytochrome c, somatic pseudogene 25

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: HC10, HCP25
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Disease relevance of CYCSP25

  • Panning of a phage display peptide library with HC-10 resulted in isolation of the motif PxxWDR, which could be aligned with P57, W60, D61, and R62 of the first domain of the HLA-I HC allospecificities reactive with HC-10 [1].
  • In 14 healthy males (28.1 +/- 3.7 (mean +/- S.D.) years), we measured flow velocity (VP; transcranial Doppler ultrasound) in the middle cerebral artery during euoxic isocapnia (ISO, +1 mmHg above rest) and two levels of euoxic hypercapnia (HC5, end-tidal P(CO(2)), P(ET,CO2), = +5 mmHg above ISO; HC10, P(ET,CO2) = +10 above ISO) [2].
  • In the same manner, we have determined that when infectivity is neutralized by 63% (1/e) about 70 molecules of monoclonal IgGs HC2 and HC10 were bound per virus particle and this is supported by independent evidence from electron microscopy [3].
  • Paraffin embedded samples from 66 squamous cell carcinomas and 7 verrucous carcinomas were studied immunohistochemically using recently developed anti-HLA class I monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) HC10 and HCA2, and anti-HLA-DR rabbit serum [4].

High impact information on CYCSP25

  • The defect in HLA gene expression affected both heavy chain and beta 2-microglobulin, as demonstrated by the null reactivity with the monoclonal antibodies GRH1, W6/32, and HC10 [5].
  • In vitro kinase assays followed by reprecipitation indicated that tyrosine phosphorylation of the class I heavy chain is probably mediated by a Src tyrosine kinase because Lck was found associated with HC-10 immunocomplexes [6].
  • We show that HLA-B27 transgenic mice and rats express HC10-reactive, beta(2)m-free HLA-B27 homodimers (B27(2)) and multimers, both intracellularly and at the cell surface of leukocytes, including rat dendritic cells [7].
  • Beta 2-microglobulin-free HLA class I heavy chain epitope mimicry by monoclonal antibody HC-10-specific peptide [1].
  • Furthermore, the HC-10 defined epitope appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthropathies, because HC-10 reduced their incidence in HLA-B27(+)beta(2)m degrees /MHC class II knockout mice [1].

Biological context of CYCSP25

  • By contrast, HC-10 did not react with six additional peptides, each bearing motif amino acid substitutions present in HC-10-not-reactive HLA-I allospecificities [1].
  • In contrast, HG-induced sympathetic stimulation increased femoral vascular resistance (FVR) during ISO, HC5 and HC10 (17-41%), while there was a general decrease in FBF below ISO [2].
  • In 3/7 rabbits immunized with whole virus, there was a HI antibody response to the HC2 (site A) or HC10 (site D) epitope, but not both, of equal magnitude to the site B epitope [8].
  • Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction mapping of the HC-10 transcript demonstrated that the HC-10 gene lacks introns, and the approximately 4,789-bp mRNA contains relatively large 5' (approximately 1,390-bp) and 3' (approximately 440-bp) untranslated regions [9].

Anatomical context of CYCSP25

  • In L-B27 cells, as previously shown in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines, a precursor/product relationship exists, early in biosynthesis, between free (HC10-reactive) and beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2m)-associated (W6/32-reactive) class I heavy chains as demonstrated by pulse/chase experiments [10].
  • No correlation was found between psoriatic skin involvement and the expression of HC10 on circulating monocytes [11].
  • RESULTS: Circulating monocytes showed higher expression of HC10 compared with circulating lymphocytes (P < 0.05) [11].
  • Northern blot analysis demonstrated that HC-10 mRNA is expressed by sporozoites prior to invasion of host cells [9].

Associations of CYCSP25 with chemical compounds

  • Conditions are described for use of HCA2 and HC10 in immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections [12].
  • The use of two monoclonal antibodies (HC-10 and HC-A2) against the native heavy chain of the HLA class I molecule revealed that 'antigen stripping' with chloroquine or citric acid does not affect the entire molecule: only the beta 2-microglobulin is cleaved, or only some epitopes on the heavy chain are altered by this procedure [13].
  • A comparison of the risk assessment procedures reveals that the first-tier approach is the most conservative for metamitron and metribuzin, and that HC5 values (and even HC10 values) based on acute EC50 values of algae and aquatic vascular plants may be used to derive maximum permissible concentrations for single applications [14].

Other interactions of CYCSP25

  • By sequential immunoprecipitation using the conformation independent monoclonal antibody HC-10, we provided evidence that the cell surface 46-kDa protein co-precipitated with calreticulin is unfolded MHC I [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CYCSP25

  • METHODS: Expression of HLA-B27 heavy chains by mononuclear cells was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter staining, Western blotting with the monoclonal antibody HC-10, and 2-dimensional isoelectric focusing [16].
  • This component partitioned to the aqueous phase upon condensation in TritonX-114 detergent and by immunoblotting was reactive with monomorphic mAb HC10 but not with Q1/28 [17].
  • Serum sHLA-I and sHLA-FHC were measured by double determinant radioimmunoassay using monoclonal antibodies: TP25.99 as catching antibody, and NAMB-1 and HC-10 as revealing antibodies [18].
  • HCA2 and HC10 also produce strong reactivity in immuno-electron microscopy [12].
  • Northern blot analysis was used to confirm the differential expression of the HC-10 mRNA [9].


  1. Beta 2-microglobulin-free HLA class I heavy chain epitope mimicry by monoclonal antibody HC-10-specific peptide. Perosa, F., Luccarelli, G., Prete, M., Favoino, E., Ferrone, S., Dammacco, F. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Differential responses to CO2 and sympathetic stimulation in the cerebral and femoral circulations in humans. Ainslie, P.N., Ashmead, J.C., Ide, K., Morgan, B.J., Poulin, M.J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Quantitative relationships between an influenza virus and neutralizing antibody. Taylor, H.P., Armstrong, S.J., Dimmock, N.J. Virology (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. HLA antigen expression in routinely processed head and neck squamous cell carcinoma primary lesions of different sites. Mattijssen, V., De Mulder, P.H., Schalkwijk, L., Manni, J.J., Van 't Hof-Grootenboer, B., Ruiter, D.J. Int. J. Cancer Suppl. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Altered HLA class I expression in non-small cell lung cancer is independent of c-myc activation. Redondo, M., Ruiz-Cabello, F., Concha, A., Cabrera, T., Pérez-Ayala, M., Oliva, M.R., Garrido, F. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Misfolding of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules in activated T cells allows cis-interactions with receptors and signaling molecules and is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation. Santos, S.G., Powis, S.J., Arosa, F.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. HLA-B27 heavy chain homodimers are expressed in HLA-B27 transgenic rodent models of spondyloarthritis and are ligands for paired Ig-like receptors. Kollnberger, S., Bird, L.A., Roddis, M., Hacquard-Bouder, C., Kubagawa, H., Bodmer, H.C., Breban, M., McMichael, A.J., Bowness, P. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. All rabbits immunized with type A influenza virions have a serum haemagglutination-inhibition antibody response biased to a single epitope in antigenic site B. Lambkin, R., Dimmock, N.J. J. Gen. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Differential mRNA display cloning and characterization of a Cryptosporidium parvum gene expressed during intracellular development. Schroeder, A.A., Lawrence, C.E., Abrahamsen, M.S. J. Parasitol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Exogenous peptide ligand influences the expression and half-life of free HLA class I heavy chains ubiquitously detected at the cell surface. Carreno, B.M., Hansen, T.H. Eur. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Psoriatic patients with arthropathy show significant expression of free HLA class I heavy chains on circulating monocytes: a potential role in the pathogenesis of psoriatic arthropathy. Lan, C.C., Tsai, W.C., Wu, C.S., Yu, C.L., Yu, H.S. Br. J. Dermatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. HLA-A- and HLA-B-specific monoclonal antibodies reactive with free heavy chains in western blots, in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections and in cryo-immuno-electron microscopy. Stam, N.J., Vroom, T.M., Peters, P.J., Pastoors, E.B., Ploegh, H.L. Int. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Influence of chloroquine or acid treatment of human platelets on the antigenicity of HLA and the 'thrombocyte-specific' glycoproteins Ia/IIa, IIb, and IIb/IIIa. Neumüller, J., Tohidast-Akrad, M., Fischer, M., Mayr, W.R. Vox Sang. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Comparing aquatic risk assessment methods for the photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides metribuzin and metamitron. Brock, T.C., Crum, S.J., Deneer, J.W., Heimbach, F., Roijackers, R.M., Sinkeldam, J.A. Environ. Pollut. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Calreticulin is expressed on the cell surface of activated human peripheral blood T lymphocytes in association with major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Arosa, F.A., de Jesus, O., Porto, G., Carmo, A.M., de Sousa, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Cell-surface expression and immune receptor recognition of HLA-B27 homodimers. Kollnberger, S., Bird, L., Sun, M.Y., Retiere, C., Braud, V.M., McMichael, A., Bowness, P. Arthritis Rheum. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Evidence for the expression of non-HLA-A,-B,-C class I genes in the human fetal liver. Houlihan, J.M., Biro, P.A., Fergar-Payne, A., Simpson, K.L., Holmes, C.H. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Increased serum concentrations of soluble HLA-class I antigens in hepatitis C virus related mixed cryoglobulinaemia. Migliaresi, S., Bresciani, A., Ambrosone, L., Spera, M., Barbarulo, D., Lombari, V., Pirozzi, G., Borgia, G., Lombardi, M.L., Tirri, G., Manzo, C. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
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