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Disease relevance of Hypercapnia


Psychiatry related information on Hypercapnia


High impact information on Hypercapnia

  • PC were stimulated by hypoxia (10% O2/90% N2) (n = 6) and central chemoreceptors by hypercapnia (7% CO2/93% O2) (n = 6) [11].
  • Hypercapnia during baroreflex activation with PE increased SNA from 32 +/- 25 U/min during PE alone to 61 +/- 26 U/min during hypercapnia and PE (P less than 0.05) [11].
  • Acute hypercapnia (arterial PCO2, 120 mmHg; blood pH, 7.02) was induced by ventilation with a 10% CO2-90% O2 gas mixture [12].
  • Effect of acute hypercapnia on renal and proximal tubular total carbon dioxide reabsorption in the acetazolamide-treated rat [12].
  • This study was designed to establish the relationship between urinary pCO2 and systemic blood pCO2 during acute hypercapnia and to investigate the significance of this relationship to collecting duct hydrogen ion (H+) secretion when the urine is acid and when it is highly alkaline [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Hypercapnia

  • Blood flow was measured with microspheres during maximal vasodilatation in the coronary bed (adenosine) and cerebral bed (hypercapnia) [14].
  • After biperiden treatment, however, hypercapnia elicited a response profile similar to that elicited by air, whereby subjective anxiety remained similar to preinhalation levels [15].
  • N omega-Methyl-L-arginine (1 mM) attenuated the cerebrovasodilation elicited by hypercapnia by 44 +/- 4% (n = 8; P less than 0.001), an effect completely reversed by coapplication of L-arginine (10 mM; P greater than 0.05; n = 13) [16].
  • Those pathways are involved in the vasodilations elicited by a wide variety of stimuli, which include hypoxia and hypercapnia and agonist/receptor interactions (e.g. muscarinic, beta-adrenergic, and prostacyclin receptors) [17].
  • An earlier study has demonstrated that indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, blocks the cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia [18].

Biological context of Hypercapnia


Anatomical context of Hypercapnia

  • The separate effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia on the force-velocity relation of rabbit myocardium were compared in 10 papillary or trabecular muscles superfused using control (95% O2-5% CO2), hypoxic (18% O2), and hypercapnic (20% CO2) physiological salt solutions [24].
  • Relative flow velocity changes within the middle cerebral artery were measured by means of transcranial Doppler during hyper- and hypocapnia (VMRTOT), during hypercapnia alone (VMRCO2), and after injection of 1 g acetazolamide (VMRACE) [25].
  • The effect of local administration of vasodilative concentrations of the adenosine receptor agonist 2-chloroadenosine (2-CADO) on the hyperemic responses of the pial and parenchymal microcirculations to graded hypercapnia was determined [26].
  • Thus, lesion of the locus ceruleus and the resultant depletion of endogenous cortical and hippocampal norepinephrine, does not influence the cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia [27].
  • We investigated the effect changes in end-expiratory lung volume (EEVL) had on the response to progressive hypercapnia (CO2-response curve) in eight open-chest, anesthetized dogs, in order to clarify the role that vagal lung mechanoreceptors have in altered respiratory drive during permissive hypercapnia [28].

Gene context of Hypercapnia

  • NS398 did not affect arterial pressure, resting CBF or the CBF reactivity to hypercapnia in anesthetized iNOS null mice (P > .05) [29].
  • Baseline breathing variables and ventilatory responses to hypercapnia were normal in the ECE-1+/- newborn mice [30].
  • In air and in response to hypercapnia, VE, VT, and f were similar in Cftr-/- mice and in controls [31].
  • Attenuation of the reflex PNA response to hypercapnia was also observed in the medulla-spinal cord preparation from ET-1-/- mice [32].
  • However, reflex increases of ventilation to hypoxia and hypercapnia were significantly attenuated in ET-1+/-, ET-1-/- and ETA-/- mice [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hypercapnia

  • In the presence of L-arginine (10 mmol/L topical suffusion, 300 mg/kg intravenous infusion), the dilation of pial arterioles (n = 6) to hypercapnia was partially restored to 30 +/- 6% at 2 hours after injury [33].
  • Relaxations, caused by transmural electrical stimulation and nicotine, of canine cerebral arterial strips contracted with prostaglandin F2 alpha, were potentiated only slightly by hypercapnia, but the potentiation of the response to exogenous NO (acidified NaNO2) was clearly greater [20].
  • METHODS: Four groups of eight anesthetized dogs underwent 12 minutes of complete ischemia followed by 4 hours of reperfusion with either 1) normocapnia, 2) normocapnia and acetazolamide (25 mg/kg at reperfusion plus 12.5 mg/kg per hour, 3) hypocapnia, or 4) hypercapnia [34].
  • However, the inferior region failed to increase in perfusion during hypercapnia and experienced significant mean blood flow reduction; flow reduction in the pixels at the 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile of flow; and an increased percentage of pixels without measurable flow, during hyperoxia (each P < 0.05) [35].
  • Unlike during hypercapnia, microdialysis of 30 mM DPAT into the MRR did not change the ventilatory response to 10% O2 [36].


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  2. Adverse effects of early dexamethasone in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Stark, A.R., Carlo, W.A., Tyson, J.E., Papile, L.A., Wright, L.L., Shankaran, S., Donovan, E.F., Oh, W., Bauer, C.R., Saha, S., Poole, W.K., Stoll, B.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
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  4. Involvement of histidine residues in proton sensing of ROMK1 channel. Chanchevalap, S., Yang, Z., Cui, N., Qu, Z., Zhu, G., Liu, C., Giwa, L.R., Abdulkadir, L., Jiang, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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  9. Impact of sleep in COPD. McNicholas, W.T. Chest (2000) [Pubmed]
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  12. Effect of acute hypercapnia on renal and proximal tubular total carbon dioxide reabsorption in the acetazolamide-treated rat. Winaver, J., Walker, K.A., Kunau, R.T. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Relationship of urinary and blood carbon dioxide tension during hypercapnia in the rat. Its significance in the evaluation of collecting duct hydrogen ion secretion. Batlle, D.C., Downer, M., Gutterman, C., Kurtzman, N.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Hemodynamic sequelae of regression of experimental atherosclerosis. Armstrong, M.L., Heistad, D.D., Marcus, M.L., Piegors, D.J., Abboud, F.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Modulation by muscarinic antagonists of the response to carbon dioxide challenge in panic disorder. Battaglia, M., Bertella, S., Ogliari, A., Bellodi, L., Smeraldi, E. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Does nitric oxide mediate the increases in cerebral blood flow elicited by hypercapnia? Iadecola, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Cyclic nucleotide crosstalk and the regulation of cerebral vasodilation. Pelligrino, D.A., Wang, Q. Prog. Neurobiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Response of the cerebral circulation in baboons to changing perfusion pressure after indomethacin. Pickard, J.D., MacDonell, L.A., MacKenzie, E.T., Harper, A.M. Circ. Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. Altered cerebral inhibition of respiratory and cardiac responses to hypercapnia in acute stroke. Klassen, A.C., Heaney, L.M., Lee, M.C., Kronenberg, R.S. Neurology (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Hypercapnia relaxes cerebral arteries and potentiates neurally-induced relaxation. Toda, N., Ayajiki, K., Okamura, T. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Relationship between resting hypercapnia and physiologic parameters before and after lung volume reduction surgery in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Shade, D., Cordova, F., Lando, Y., Travaline, J.M., Furukawa, S., Kuzma, A.M., Criner, G.J. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Hyperglycemia and hypercapnia suppress BDNF gene expression in vulnerable regions after transient forebrain ischemia in the rat. Uchino, H., Lindvall, O., Siesjö, B.K., Kokaia, Z. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Adrenal and pancreatic endocrine responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in the calf. Bloom, S.R., Edwards, A.V., Hardy, R.N. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia on the force-velocity relation of rabbit myocardium. Walley, K.R., Ford, L.E., Wood, L.D. Circ. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Evaluation of cerebral vasomotor reactivity by various vasodilating stimuli: comparison of CO2 to acetazolamide. Ringelstein, E.B., Van Eyck, S., Mertens, I. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of 2-chloroadenosine on cerebrovascular reactivity to hypercapnia in newborn pig. Gidday, J.M., Park, T.S. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Increased cerebral blood flow during hypercapnia is not affected by lesion of the nucleus locus ceruleus. Harik, S.I., Prado, R., Busto, R., Ginsberg, M.D. Stroke (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Control of ventilation during lung volume changes and permissive hypercapnia in dogs. Carl, M.L., Schelegle, E.S., Hollstien, S.B., Green, J.F. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. The cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor NS-398 ameliorates ischemic brain injury in wild-type mice but not in mice with deletion of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. Nagayama, M., Niwa, K., Nagayama, T., Ross, M.E., Iadecola, C. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Impaired ventilatory responses to hypoxia in mice deficient in endothelin-converting-enzyme-1. Renolleau, S., Dauger, S., Vardon, G., Levacher, B., Simonneau, M., Yanagisawa, M., Gaultier, C., Gallego, J. Pediatr. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia in conscious cystic fibrosis knockout mice Cftr-/-. Bonora, M., Bernaudin, J.F., Guernier, C., Brahimi-Horn, M.C. Pediatr. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Endothelin in the central control of cardiovascular and respiratory functions. Kuwaki, T., Ling, G.Y., Onodera, M., Ishii, T., Nakamura, A., Ju, K.H., Cao, W.H., Kumada, M., Kurihara, H., Kurihara, Y., Yazaki, Y., Ohuchi, T., Yanagisawa, M., Fukuda, Y. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. L-arginine partially restores the diminished CO2 reactivity after mild controlled cortical impact injury in the adult rat. Golding, E.M., Robertson, C.S., Bryan, R.M. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Intracellular pH during reperfusion influences evoked potential recovery after complete cerebral ischemia. Maruki, Y., Koehler, R.C., Eleff, S.M., Traystman, R.J. Stroke (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Regional differences in retinal vascular reactivity. Chung, H.S., Harris, A., Halter, P.J., Kagemann, L., Roff, E.J., Garzozi, H.J., Hosking, S.L., Martin, B.J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Medullary serotonergic neurones modulate the ventilatory response to hypercapnia, but not hypoxia in conscious rats. Taylor, N.C., Li, A., Nattie, E.E. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
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