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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Variation in dental and skeletal open bite malocclusion in humans with amelogenesis imperfecta.

The amelogenesis imperfectas (AI) are a diverse group of genetic disorders primarily affecting the quality and or quantity of enamel, however, affected individuals often have an open bite malocclusion. Three main AI types are recognized based on the perceived developmental mechanisms involved and the enamel phenotype. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the association of the AI enamel defect with craniofacial features characteristic of an open bite malocclusion. The sample consisted of 54 AI affected and 34 unaffected family members from 18 different kindreds. Lateral cephalograms were digitized and measurements evaluated for vertical plane alterations using Z-scores. Forty two percent of AI affected individuals and 12% of unaffected family members had dental or skeletal open bite malocclusions. Skeletal open bite malocclusion was variably expressed in AI affected individuals. The enamel phenotype severity did not necessarily correspond with the presence or severity of open bite malocclussion. Open bite malocclusion occurred in individuals with AI caused by mutations in the AMELX and ENAM genes even though these genes are considered to be predominantly or exclusively expressed in teeth. Affected AI individuals with cephalometric values meeting our criteria of skeletal open bite malocclusion were observed in all three major AI types. The pathophysiological relationship between AI associated enamel defects and open bite malocclusion remains unknown.[1]


  1. Variation in dental and skeletal open bite malocclusion in humans with amelogenesis imperfecta. Ravassipour, D.B., Powell, C.M., Phillips, C.L., Hart, P.S., Hart, T.C., Boyd, C., Wright, J.T. Arch. Oral Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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