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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Influence of efflux transporters on the accumulation and efflux of four quinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, garenoxacin, and moxifloxacin) in J774 macrophages.

Ciprofloxacin is subject to efflux from J774 macrophages through a multidrug resistance-related protein-like transporter (J. M. Michot, F. Van Bambeke, M. P. Mingeot-Leclercq, and P. M. Tulkens, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:2673-2682, 2004). Here, we compare ciprofloxacin to levofloxacin, garenoxacin, and moxifloxacin for transport. At 4 mg/liter, an apparent steady state in accumulation was reached after 30 to 60 min for all quinolones but to quite different levels (approximately 3, 5, 10, and 16 fold). Accumulation of ciprofloxacin was increased (to about 16 to 20 fold) by ATP depletion, increase in extracellular concentration, and the addition of probenecid, gemfibrozil, or MK571 (but not verapamil or GF120918). These treatments did not affect the accumulation of moxifloxacin. Levofloxacin and garenoxacin showed an intermediate behavior. Efflux of ciprofloxacin was slowed down by probenecid (half-life, 7.2 versus 1.6 min). Moxifloxacin efflux was faster and unaffected by probenecid (half-lifes, 0.27 versus 0.33 min). Efflux of levofloxacin and garenoxacin was modestly decreased by probenecid (1.5 and 2.1 fold). Accumulation of 14C-labeled ciprofloxacin was increased by unlabeled ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin, but moxifloxacin was two times less potent. Accumulation of moxifloxacin at 4 degrees C was almost identical to that at 37 degrees C, whereas that of ciprofloxacin was minimal (levofloxacin and garenoxacin showed intermediate behaviors). Cells subjected to thermal shock (56 degrees C; 10 min) accumulated all quinolones at a similar level (16 to 23 fold). We conclude that moxifloxacin is apparently not subject to efflux from J774 macrophages, even though it can interact with the ciprofloxacin transporter. Levofloxacin and garenoxacin are partially effluxed. Data suggest that efflux plays an important role in the differential accumulation of quinolones by J774 macrophages.[1]


  1. Influence of efflux transporters on the accumulation and efflux of four quinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, garenoxacin, and moxifloxacin) in J774 macrophages. Michot, J.M., Seral, C., Van Bambeke, F., Mingeot-Leclercq, M.P., Tulkens, P.M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
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