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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Anaerobic biotransformation of dinitrotoluene isomers by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain 27 isolated from earthworm intestine.

Dinitrotoluenes are widely used as solvents and are intermediates in the synthesis of dyes, explosives, and pesticides. Environmental concerns regarding DNTs have increased due to their widespread use and their discharge into the environment. In this study, the anaerobic biodegradation of four dinitrotoluene isomers, 2,3-, 2,4-, 2,6- and 3,4-DNT, was investigated using Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain 27, which was isolated from the intestines of earthworms. Liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy showed that L. lactis strain 27 non-specifically reduced the nitro groups on the tested dinitrotoluenes to their corresponding aminonitrotoluenes. L. lactis strain 27, however, did not reduce either sequentially or simultaneously two nitro groups of the dinitrotoluenes, resulting in the formation of the corresponding diaminotoluenes. In vitro formation of dinitroazoxytoluenes suggested the presence of oxygen-sensitive hydroxylaminonitrotoluenes. L. lactis strain 27 was capable of reducing 2,4-, 2,6-, 2,3-, and 3,4-dinitrotoluenes up to 173.6, 66.6, 287.1, and 355 microM, respectively in 12 h incubation. A relatively rapid reduction was observed in the case of the 2,3-, and 3,4-dinitrotoluenes, which have vicinal nitro groups on their arene structure. Non-specific anaerobic reduction of dinitrotoluenes by the intestinal bacterium L. lactis strain 27 differentiated the extent of reduction of DNTs according to the substitutional position of the nitro groups and produced in vitro more toxic dinitroazoxytoluenes, suggesting that anaerobic biotransformation of dinitrotoluenes could increase environmental risk.[1]


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