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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Protein kinase C-alpha regulates insulin action and degradation by interacting with insulin receptor substrate-1 and 14-3-3 epsilon.

Protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha exerts a regulatory function on insulin action. We showed by overlay blot that PKCalpha directly binds a 180-kDa protein, corresponding to IRS-1, and a 30-kDa molecular species, identified as 14-3-3epsilon. In intact NIH-3T3 cells overexpressing insulin receptors (3T3-hIR), insulin selectively increased PKCalpha co-precipitation with IRS-1, but not with IRS-2, and with 14-3-3epsilon, but not with other 14-3-3 isoforms. Overexpression of 14-3-3epsilon in 3T3-hIR cells significantly reduced IRS-1-bound PKCalpha activity, without altering IRS-1/PKCalpha co-precipitation. 14-3-3epsilon overexpression also increased insulin-stimulated insulin receptor and IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, followed by increased activation of Raf1, ERK1/2, and Akt/ protein kinase B. Insulin-induced glycogen synthase activity and thymidine incorporation were also augmented. Consistently, selective depletion of 14-3-3epsilon by antisense oligonucleotides caused a 3-fold increase of IRS-1-bound PKCalpha activity and a similarly sized reduction of insulin receptor and IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and signaling. In turn, selective inhibition of PKCalpha expression by antisense oligonucleotides reverted the negative effect of 14-3-3epsilon depletion on insulin signaling. Moreover, PKCalpha inhibition was accompanied by a >2-fold decrease of insulin degradation. Similar results were also obtained by overexpressing 14-3-3epsilon. Thus, in NIH-3T3 cells, insulin induces the formation of multimolecular complexes, including IRS-1, PKCalpha, and 14-3-3epsilon. The presence of 14-3-3epsilon in the complex is not necessary for IRS-1/PKCalpha interaction but modulates PKCalpha activity, thereby regulating insulin signaling and degradation.[1]


  1. Protein kinase C-alpha regulates insulin action and degradation by interacting with insulin receptor substrate-1 and 14-3-3 epsilon. Oriente, F., Andreozzi, F., Romano, C., Perruolo, G., Perfetti, A., Fiory, F., Miele, C., Beguinot, F., Formisano, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
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