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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Regulation of K-Cl cotransport by protein phosphatase 1alpha in mouse erythrocytes.

The K-Cl cotransport (KCC) is an electroneutral-gradient-driven-membrane transport system, which is involved in regulation of red cell volume. Although the regulatory cascade of KCC is largely unknown, a signaling pathway involving phosphatases and kinases has been proposed. Here, we investigated the expression and the activity of protein phosphatase 1(PP-1) isoforms in mouse red cells, focusing on two models of abnormally activated KCC: mice genetically lacking the two Src-family tyrosine kinases, Hck and Fgr, (hck-/-fgr-/-) and the SAD transgenic sickle-cell-mice. The PP-1alpha, PP-1gamma, PP-1delta isoforms were expressed at similar levels in wild-type, hck-/-fgr-/- and SAD mouse erythrocytes and in each case were predominantly localized to cytoplasm. The PP-1alpha activity was significantly higher in both membrane and cytosol fractions of hck-/-fgr-/- and of SAD erythrocytes than in those of wild-type red cells, suggesting PP-1alpha as a target of the Hck and Fgr kinases. The PP2, a specific inhibitor of Src-family kinase, significantly increased KCC activity in wild-type mouse red cells, but failed to modify the already increased KCC activity in SAD erythrocytes. The lag-time for activation of KCC was considerably reduced in both hck-/-fgr-/- and SAD erythrocytes, suggesting that the rate limiting activation steps in both strains are freed from their tonic inhibition. Sulfhydryl reduction by dithiothreitol (DTT) lowered KCC activity only in SAD red cells, but did not affect the PP2-treated erythrocytes. These data suggest up-regulation of KCC in SAD red cells is mainly secondary to oxidative damage, which most likely reduces or removes the tonic KCC inhibition resulting from PP-1alpha activity controlled in turn by Src-family kinases.[1]


  1. Regulation of K-Cl cotransport by protein phosphatase 1alpha in mouse erythrocytes. Franceschi, L.D., Villa-Moruzzi, E., Biondani, A., Siciliano, A., Brugnara, C., Alper, S.L., Lowell, C.A., Berton, G. Pflugers Arch. (2006) [Pubmed]
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