The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Cell Size

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Cell Size


Psychiatry related information on Cell Size

  • The quantitative analysis further demonstrated that water deprivation significantly reduced the cell size, perimeter and length of cellular processes of MAP2-stained pituicytes as compared with those of control [6].
  • Neonatal cellularity furnishes a useful indicator not only of the backfat cell size at slaughter but also of the chemical factors important in determining the physical and organoleptic characteristics of porcine fat [7].
  • Estrogen decreased cervical cell size, shortened response time relative to changes in cell size after hypertonic challenge, and augmented the decrease in cell size in response to hypertonic and hydrostatic gradients [8].

High impact information on Cell Size

  • Phosphorylation of TSC2 by AMPK is required for translation regulation and cell size control in response to energy deprivation [9].
  • We propose that raptor is a missing component of the mTOR pathway that through its association with mTOR regulates cell size in response to nutrient levels [10].
  • Raptor has a positive role in nutrient-stimulated signaling to the downstream effector S6K1, maintenance of cell size, and mTOR protein expression [10].
  • PI3Kalpha mediates the alteration in cell size while PI3Kgamma acts as a negative regulator of cardiac contractility [11].
  • In mosaic animals, chico homozygous cells grow slower than their heterozygous siblings, show an autonomous reduction in cell size, and form organs of reduced size [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cell Size

  • RA at physiological concentrations suppresses the increase in cell size and induction of a genetic marker for hypertrophy, the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) gene [13].
  • Furthermore, although NE markedly increased [14C]phenylalanine incorporation into protein and myocyte hypertrophy measured by cell size, ATP did not [14].
  • The same concentration of anti-MAPK ODN inhibited development of the morphological features of hypertrophy (sarcomerogenesis, increased cell size) in myocytes exposed to phenylephrine [15].
  • Changes in the adenine nucleotide pool, cell volume regulation, myocardial calcium, and ultrastructure were studied at the end of 15 minutes of ischemia and after 0.5, 3.0, and 20 minutes of reflow [16].
  • The control of cell volume in hepatoma 3924A appears to involve two separate components of water transport, one of which is sensitive, and one insensitive to ouabain [17].

Biological context of Cell Size

  • We have cloned the cdc25+ gene and have found that increased cdc25+ expression causes mitosis to initiate at a reduced cell size [18].
  • These substances were then introduced into diphtheria toxin-resistant mouse L cells by virus-mediated cell fusion of the cells with the ghosts, and mononuclear recipients that has fused with only one erythrocyte ghost were separated in a flourescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) on the basis of their cell size and fluorescence intensity [19].
  • A volume-regulated chloride current (ICl.vol) is ubiquitously present in mammalian cells, and is required for the regulation of electrical activity, cell volume, intracellular pH, immunological responses, cell proliferation and differentiation [20].
  • Chloride channels have several functions, including the regulation of cell volume, stabilizing membrane potential, signal transduction and transepithelial transport [21].
  • When a strain deleted for ppa2 is treated with okadaic acid, cell size is reduced further to that of wee1-50 mutant strain or overexpressing the cdc25+ gene product, suggesting functional relationship of ppa2 with the cdc25 tyrosine phosphatase and/or the wee1 kinase in cell cycle control [22].

Anatomical context of Cell Size

  • At least two other chloride channels are present in epithelial cells, regulated by cell volume and by intracellular Ca2+, respectively [23].
  • Similarly, constitutive expression of maize ABP1 in maize cell lines conferred on them the capacity to respond to auxin by increasing cell size [24].
  • The role of cyclins in controlling G1 progression in mammalian cells was tested by construction of fibroblasts that constitutively overexpress human cyclin E. This was found to shorten the duration of G1, decrease cell size, and diminish the serum requirement for the transition from G1 to S phase [25].
  • This review focuses on the only ubiquitously expressed isoform, NHE1, which is localized at the plasma membrane where it plays a critical role in intracellular pH (pHi) and cell volume homeostasis [26].
  • These findings suggest that nutrient signals set the critical cell-size threshold via Sfp1 and Sch9-mediated control of ribosome biosynthetic rates [27].

Associations of Cell Size with chemical compounds

  • When glucose is added to cells growing in a poor carbon source, the critical cell size required for Start is reset from a small to a large size [28].
  • Ion channels selectively permeable to chloride ions regulate cell functions as diverse as excitability and control of cell volume [29].
  • This constraint on cell size was removed by the development of the fluorescent Ca2+ -sensitive dye Quin-2 and its acetoxymethyl ester, which can be introduced into a wide range of cell types [30].
  • The Torpedo chloride channel ClC-0 is the prototype of a large family of chloride channels that have roles in transepithelial transport and in regulating electrical excitability and cell volume [31].
  • Numerous investigators have concluded that ADH-induced water reabsorption causes large apparent increases in cell volume with concomitant cytoplasmic dilution [32].

Gene context of Cell Size

  • The Gic1 protein, together with its structural homolog Gic2, are required for cell size and shape control, bud site selection, bud emergence, actin cytoskeletal organization, mitotic spindle orientation/positioning, and mating projection formation in response to mating pheromone [33].
  • Drosophila tumor suppressor PTEN controls cell size and number by antagonizing the Chico/PI3-kinase signaling pathway [34].
  • Sfp1 and Sch9 are required for carbon-source modulation of cell size and are regulated at the level of nuclear localization and abundance, respectively [27].
  • Notably, analysis of mutants demonstrates a function for Bre1/Lge1-dependent H2B monoubiquitination in the control of cell size [35].
  • Dlg, Scrib and Lgl regulate neuroblast cell size and mitotic spindle asymmetry [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cell Size

  • Pigmentation and cell size were evaluated by spectrophotometry and microscopy. p16 and Arf expression in primary and spontaneously immortalized melanocyte or melanocyte precursor cell lines were evaluated by immunoblotting [37].
  • BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration in polycythaemia that follows renal transplantation, which, like altitude polycythaemia, is an erythropoietin-dependent form of polycythaemia [38].
  • Confocal imaging and whole-cell recordings demonstrated that astrocytes exhibited a transient Ca(2+)-dependent cell volume increase, which activated glutamate permeable channels [39].
  • Crystal data from the neutron diffraction analysis of the phenylethylammonium salt of the title compound at 100 K: space group P21; a = 8.407(2) A, b = 8.300(4) A, c = 8.614(2) A, beta = 91.20(3) degrees; unit cell volume = 600.9(3) A3, zeta = 2 (numbers in parentheses are the estimated standard deviations) [40].
  • Echinocytes produced by 24-hour adenosine triphosphate depletion differed from drug-induced echinocytes: they had an increased cell volume at constant surface area and consequently an increased filtration resistance through 2.6- and 4.5-micron filter pores [41].


  1. Response of Cloudman S91 melanoma cells to melanocytestimulating hormone: enhancement by cytochalasin B. Cobb, J.P., McGrath, A., Willetts, N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  2. Regulation of glucose utilization in adipose cells and muscle after long-term experimental hyperinsulinemia in rats. Wardzala, L.J., Hirshman, M., Pofcher, E., Horton, E.D., Mead, P.M., Cushman, S.W., Horton, E.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Pathogenesis of precirrhotic portal hypertension in alcohol-fed baboons. Miyakawa, H., Iida, S., Leo, M.A., Greenstein, R.J., Zimmon, D.S., Lieber, C.S. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Transforming growth factor-beta-induced growth inhibition and cellular hypertrophy in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Owens, G.K., Geisterfer, A.A., Yang, Y.W., Komoriya, A. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Sodium-coupled glycine uptake by Ehrlich ascites tumor cells results in an increase in cell volume and plasma membrane channel activities. Hudson, R.L., Schultz, S.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Redistribution of MAP2 immunoreactivity in the neurohypophysial astrocytes of adult rats during dehydration. Matsunaga, W., Miyata, S., Kiyohara, T. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Relationships between adipose tissue characteristics of newborn pigs and subsequent performance: III. Histological and chemical characteristics of backfat. Geri, G., Poli, B.M., Zappa, A., Campodoni, G., Franci, O. J. Anim. Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Estrogen increases the permeability of the cultured human cervical epithelium by modulating cell deformability. Gorodeski, G.I. Am. J. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. TSC2 mediates cellular energy response to control cell growth and survival. Inoki, K., Zhu, T., Guan, K.L. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. mTOR interacts with raptor to form a nutrient-sensitive complex that signals to the cell growth machinery. Kim, D.H., Sarbassov, D.D., Ali, S.M., King, J.E., Latek, R.R., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Tempst, P., Sabatini, D.M. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of myocardial contractility and cell size by distinct PI3K-PTEN signaling pathways. Crackower, M.A., Oudit, G.Y., Kozieradzki, I., Sarao, R., Sun, H., Sasaki, T., Hirsch, E., Suzuki, A., Shioi, T., Irie-Sasaki, J., Sah, R., Cheng, H.Y., Rybin, V.O., Lembo, G., Fratta, L., Oliveira-dos-Santos, A.J., Benovic, J.L., Kahn, C.R., Izumo, S., Steinberg, S.F., Wymann, M.P., Backx, P.H., Penninger, J.M. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Autonomous control of cell and organ size by CHICO, a Drosophila homolog of vertebrate IRS1-4. Böhni, R., Riesgo-Escovar, J., Oldham, S., Brogiolo, W., Stocker, H., Andruss, B.F., Beckingham, K., Hafen, E. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Retinoid-dependent pathways suppress myocardial cell hypertrophy. Zhou, M.D., Sucov, H.M., Evans, R.M., Chien, K.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Extracellular ATP induces immediate-early gene expression but not cellular hypertrophy in neonatal cardiac myocytes. Zheng, J.S., Boluyt, M.O., O'Neill, L., Crow, M.T., Lakatta, E.G. Circ. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Depletion of mitogen-activated protein kinase using an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide approach downregulates the phenylephrine-induced hypertrophic response in rat cardiac myocytes. Glennon, P.E., Kaddoura, S., Sale, E.M., Sale, G.J., Fuller, S.J., Sugden, P.H. Circ. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of reperfusion late in the phase of reversible ischemic injury. Changes in cell volume, electrolytes, metabolites, and ultrastructure. Jennings, R.B., Schaper, J., Hill, M.L., Steenbergen, C., Reimer, K.A. Circ. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. The metabolism-dependent maintenance of cell volume and ultrastructure in slices of Morris hepatoma 3924A. Russo, M.A., Galeotti, T., van Rossum, G.D. Cancer Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. cdc25+ functions as an inducer in the mitotic control of fission yeast. Russell, P., Nurse, P. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. One molecule of diphtheria toxin fragment A introduced into a cell can kill the cell. Yamaizumi, M., Mekada, E., Uchida, T., Okada, Y. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Molecular identification of a volume-regulated chloride channel. Duan, D., Winter, C., Cowley, S., Hume, J.R., Horowitz, B. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. A chloride channel widely expressed in epithelial and non-epithelial cells. Thiemann, A., Gründer, S., Pusch, M., Jentsch, T.J. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Negative regulation of mitosis by the fission yeast protein phosphatase ppa2. Kinoshita, N., Yamano, H., Niwa, H., Yoshida, T., Yanagida, M. Genes Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Volume-regulated chloride channels associated with the human multidrug-resistance P-glycoprotein. Valverde, M.A., Díaz, M., Sepúlveda, F.V., Gill, D.R., Hyde, S.C., Higgins, C.F. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Auxin-dependent cell expansion mediated by overexpressed auxin-binding protein 1. Jones, A.M., Im, K.H., Savka, M.A., Wu, M.J., DeWitt, N.G., Shillito, R., Binns, A.N. Science (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Cyclin-dependent regulation of G1 in mammalian fibroblasts. Ohtsubo, M., Roberts, J.M. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. The changing face of the Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE1: structure, regulation, and cellular actions. Putney, L.K., Denker, S.P., Barber, D.L. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. A dynamic transcriptional network communicates growth potential to ribosome synthesis and critical cell size. Jorgensen, P., Rupes, I., Sharom, J.R., Schneper, L., Broach, J.R., Tyers, M. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Inhibition of G1 cyclin activity by the Ras/cAMP pathway in yeast. Tokiwa, G., Tyers, M., Volpe, T., Futcher, B. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. New mammalian chloride channel identified by expression cloning. Paulmichl, M., Li, Y., Wickman, K., Ackerman, M., Peralta, E., Clapham, D. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Intracellular Ca indicator Quin-2 inhibits Ca2+ inflow via Na/Ca exchange in squid axon. Allen, T.J., Baker, P.F. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. Two physically distinct pores in the dimeric ClC-0 chloride channel. Ludewig, U., Pusch, M., Jentsch, T.J. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Absence of significant cellular dilution during ADH-stimulated water reabsorption. Strange, K., Spring, K.R. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. The Cdc42 GTPase-associated proteins Gic1 and Gic2 are required for polarized cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Chen, G.C., Kim, Y.J., Chan, C.S. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Drosophila tumor suppressor PTEN controls cell size and number by antagonizing the Chico/PI3-kinase signaling pathway. Goberdhan, D.C., Paricio, N., Goodman, E.C., Mlodzik, M., Wilson, C. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. A conserved RING finger protein required for histone H2B monoubiquitination and cell size control. Hwang, W.W., Venkatasubrahmanyam, S., Ianculescu, A.G., Tong, A., Boone, C., Madhani, H.D. Mol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Dlg, Scrib and Lgl regulate neuroblast cell size and mitotic spindle asymmetry. Albertson, R., Doe, C.Q. Nat. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. p16(Ink4a) in melanocyte senescence and differentiation. Sviderskaya, E.V., Hill, S.P., Evans-Whipp, T.J., Chin, L., Orlow, S.J., Easty, D.J., Cheong, S.C., Beach, D., DePinho, R.A., Bennett, D.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition therapy in altitude polycythaemia: a prospective randomised trial. Plata, R., Cornejo, A., Arratia, C., Anabaya, A., Perna, A., Dimitrov, B.D., Remuzzi, G., Ruggenenti, P. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  39. Receptor-mediated glutamate release from volume sensitive channels in astrocytes. Takano, T., Kang, J., Jaiswal, J.K., Simon, S.M., Lin, J.H., Yu, Y., Li, Y., Yang, J., Dienel, G., Zielke, H.R., Nedergaard, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. Determination of the absolute configuration of (-)-(2R)-succinic-2-d acid by neutron diffraction study: unambiguous proof of the absolute stereochemistry of the NAD+/NADH interconversion. Yuan, H.S., Stevens, R.C., Fujita, S., Watkins, M.I., Koetzle, T.F., Bau, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  41. Red cell rheology in stomatocyte-echinocyte transformation: roles of cell geometry and cell shape. Reinhart, W.H., Chien, S. Blood (1986) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities