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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Metabolite 1 of protopanaxadiol-type saponins, an axonal regenerative factor, stimulates teneurin-2 linked by PI3-kinase cascade.

We previously showed that 20-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (M1), a metabolite of protopanaxadiol-type ginseng saponins by intestinal bacteria had axonal extension activity in degenerated neurons, and improved memory disorder and synaptic loss induced by an active fragment of amyloid beta, Abeta(25-35). It is unknown how M1 shows these effects in neurons. To clarify the signal transduction mechanism of M1-induced axonal extension, phosphorylated proteins by M1 stimulation were identified because most cellular signal pathways are regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. The combination of immunoprecipitation and MALDI-TOF-MS revealed that teneurin-2 and mPar3 were specifically phosphorylated by M1 stimulation. Because mPar3 is known as an axonal specifying molecule and to be regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase ( PI3-kinase), the involvement of teneurin-2 and PI3-kinase in the M1 signal was studied. In teneurin-2-deficient cortical neurons, M1-induced axonal extension and PI3-kinase activation were significantly inhibited. In addition, treatment with PI3-kinase inhibitor also reduced M1-induced axonal extension. These results suggest that M1 induces axonal outgrowth through the teneurin-2- PI3-kinase cascade.[1]


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