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Disease relevance of Panax


Psychiatry related information on Panax

  • These results suggest that subchronic intake of ginseng extract inhibits the activity of nigro-striatal dopamine neurons in the daytime and activates spontaneous motor activity during the dark period in old rats, while it produces opposite effects in young rats [6].
  • Both piracetam and ginseng treatment provided good protection against electroshock stress when compared to the untreated mice; fighting scores, incidence of tonic convulsion and mortality were significantly less in the treated groups [7].
  • Korean red ginseng saponins with low ratios of protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol saponin improve scopolamine-induced learning disability and spatial working memory in mice [8].

High impact information on Panax

  • Effect of ginseng saponins and hydrocortisone on phytohemagglutinin transformation of lymphocytes [9].
  • We now have found the particular compound that seems responsible for the effect: it is a saponin, called ginsenoside Rf (Rf), that is present in only trace amounts within ginseng [10].
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibits novel ginseng metabolite-mediated apoptosis [11].
  • Recently, a novel intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponins, i.e., 20-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (IH-901), has been reported to induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells [11].
  • A partial purification of American ginseng was performed to concentrate the putative protective components: Rb1, Rb3, and Rd (termed Rb extract) [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Panax


Biological context of Panax


Anatomical context of Panax


Associations of Panax with chemical compounds

  • To test the proposed neuroprotective activity of whole ginseng extract and its components, we used 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, to produce neurodegeneration [12].
  • RESULTS: In nondiabetic subjects, no differences were found in postprandial glycemia between placebo and ginseng when administered together with the glucose challenge [26].
  • Additionally, ginseng may cause headache, tremulousness, and manic episodes in patients treated with phenelzine sulfate [1].
  • Use of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng declined during the study, while lutein use increased dramatically, because of its addition to multivitamin products [27].
  • We report a 28-year-old woman who had a severe headache after ingesting a large quantity of ethanol-extracted ginseng [28].

Gene context of Panax

  • Garlic oil reduced CYP2E1 activity by 39% (P =.030), whereas no significant effect on CYP activity was observed for P ginseng and G biloba [29].
  • Grapeseed extract, ginseng, silymarin, and kava-kava produced 270 +/- 73, 155 +/- 83, 100 +/- 10, and 386 +/- 185% of control CYP3A4 mRNA, respectively [30].
  • In this study, we investigated whether or not ginseng saponins could reverse MDR mediated by Pgp or MRP [31].
  • In vitro effect of standardized ginseng extracts and individual ginsenosides on the catalytic activity of human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 [32].
  • The ginseng treated splenocytes produced more TNF-alpha (P < 0.03) and IFN-gamma (P0.05) than the control spleen cells [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Panax


  1. Herbal medicinals: selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions. Miller, L.G. Arch. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Ginseng therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Sotaniemi, E.A., Haapakoski, E., Rautio, A. Diabetes Care (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Antitumor promotional effects of a novel intestinal bacterial metabolite (IH-901) derived from the protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides in mouse skin. Lee, J.Y., Shin, J.W., Chun, K.S., Park, K.K., Chung, W.Y., Bang, Y.J., Sung, J.H., Surh, Y.J. Carcinogenesis (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Ginseng saponin metabolite suppresses phorbol ester-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through inhibition of activator protein-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in human astroglioma cells. Jung, S.H., Woo, M.S., Kim, S.Y., Kim, W.K., Hyun, J.W., Kim, E.J., Kim, D.H., Kim, H.S. Int. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. pS2 expression induced by American ginseng in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Duda, R.B., Taback, B., Kessel, B., Dooley, D.D., Yang, H., Marchiori, J., Slomovic, B.M., Alvarez, J.G. Ann. Surg. Oncol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of Panax ginseng on age-related changes in the spontaneous motor activity and dopaminergic nervous system in the rat. Watanabe, H., Ohta, H., Imamura, L., Asakura, W., Matoba, Y., Matsumoto, K. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Antistress and antifatigue properties of Panax ginseng: comparison with piracetam. Banerjee, U., Izquierdo, J.A. Acta physiologica latino americana. (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Korean red ginseng saponins with low ratios of protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol saponin improve scopolamine-induced learning disability and spatial working memory in mice. Jin, S.H., Park, J.K., Nam, K.Y., Park, S.N., Jung, N.P. Journal of ethnopharmacology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of ginseng saponins and hydrocortisone on phytohemagglutinin transformation of lymphocytes. Chong, S.K., Brown, H.A., Oberholzer, V., Walker-Smith, J.A. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. A trace component of ginseng that inhibits Ca2+ channels through a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein. Nah, S.Y., Park, H.J., McCleskey, E.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibits novel ginseng metabolite-mediated apoptosis. Yim, H.W., Jong, H.S., Kim, T.Y., Choi, H.H., Kim, S.G., Song, S.H., Kim, J., Ko, S.G., Lee, J.W., Kim, T.Y., Bang, Y.J. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Protective effects of ginseng components in a rodent model of neurodegeneration. Lian, X.Y., Zhang, Z., Stringer, J.L. Ann. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. American ginseng berry extract and ginsenoside Re attenuate cisplatin-induced kaolin intake in rats. Mehendale, S., Aung, H., Wang, A., Yin, J.J., Wang, C.Z., Xie, J.T., Yuan, C.S. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. In vitro anti-adhesive activity of an acidic polysaccharide from Panax ginseng on Porphyromonas gingivalis binding to erythrocytes. Lee, J.H., Lee, J.S., Chung, M.S., Kim, K.H. Planta Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Blockade by ginseng total saponin of the development of methamphetamine reverse tolerance and dopamine receptor supersensitivity in mice. Kim, H.S., Kang, J.G., Rheu, H.M., Cho, D.H., Oh, K.W. Planta Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Experimental and epidemiological evidence on non-organ specific cancer preventive effect of Korean ginseng and identification of active compounds. Yun, T.K. Mutat. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Reversal of daunomycin and vinblastine resistance in multidrug-resistant P388 leukemia in vitro through enhanced cytotoxicity by triterpenoids. Hasegawa, H., Sung, J.H., Matsumiya, S., Uchiyama, M., Inouye, Y., Kasai, R., Yamasaki, K. Planta Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Transcriptional activation of the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase gene through the AP2 site by ginsenoside Rb2 extracted from a medicinal plant, Panax ginseng. Kim, Y.H., Park, K.H., Rho, H.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Ginseng extract scavenges hydroxyl radical and protects unsaturated fatty acids from decomposition caused by iron-mediated lipid peroxidation. Zhang, D., Yasuda, T., Yu, Y., Zheng, P., Kawabata, T., Ma, Y., Okada, S. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Panaxadiol selectively inhibits cyclin A-associated Cdk2 activity by elevating p21WAF1/CIP1 protein levels in mammalian cells. Jin, Y.H., Choi, J., Shin, S., Lee, K.Y., Park, J.H., Lee, S.K. Carcinogenesis (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of ginseng saponin ginsenoside-Rg(3) inhibition of catecholamine secretion in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Tachikawa, E., Kudo, K., Nunokawa, M., Kashimoto, T., Takahashi, E., Kitagawa, S. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Ginsenoside Rb1 blocks homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction in porcine coronary arteries. Zhou, W., Chai, H., Lin, P.H., Lumsden, A.B., Yao, Q., Chen, C. J. Vasc. Surg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. How useful are unconventional cancer treatments? Ernst, E., Cassileth, B.R. Eur. J. Cancer (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. In vitro inhibition of adrenal catecholamine secretion by steroidal metabolites of ginseng saponins. Tachikawa, E., Kudo, K., Hasegawa, H., Kashimoto, T., Sasaki, K., Miyazaki, M., Taira, H., Lindstrom, J.M. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Panax ginseng pharmacology: a nitric oxide link? Gillis, C.N. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Vuksan, V., Sievenpiper, J.L., Koo, V.Y., Francis, T., Beljan-Zdravkovic, U., Xu, Z., Vidgen, E. Arch. Intern. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Recent trends in use of herbal and other natural products. Kelly, J.P., Kaufman, D.W., Kelley, K., Rosenberg, L., Anderson, T.E., Mitchell, A.A. Arch. Intern. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Ginseng-associated cerebral arteritis. Ryu, S.J., Chien, Y.Y. Neurology (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Cytochrome P450 phenotypic ratios for predicting herb-drug interactions in humans. Gurley, B.J., Gardner, S.F., Hubbard, M.A., Williams, D.K., Gentry, W.B., Cui, Y., Ang, C.Y. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Regulation of CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes by pharmaceuticals and natural products. Raucy, J.L. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance by protopanaxatriol ginsenosides from Korean red ginseng. Choi, C.H., Kang, G., Min, Y.D. Planta Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. In vitro effect of standardized ginseng extracts and individual ginsenosides on the catalytic activity of human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1. Chang, T.K., Chen, J., Benetton, S.A. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Cytokine modulating effect of ginseng treatment in a mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection. Song, Z., Moser, C., Wu, H., Faber, V., Kharazmi, A., Høiby, N. J. Cyst. Fibros. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) attenuates postprandial glycemia in a time-dependent but not dose-dependent manner in healthy individuals. Vuksan, V., Sievenpiper, J.L., Wong, J., Xu, Z., Beljan-Zdravkovic, U., Arnason, J.T., Assinewe, V., Stavro, M.P., Jenkins, A.L., Leiter, L.A., Francis, T. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Herb-drug interactions: a literature review. Hu, Z., Yang, X., Ho, P.C., Chan, S.Y., Heng, P.W., Chan, E., Duan, W., Koh, H.L., Zhou, S. Drugs (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Growth and ginsenoside production in hairy root cultures of Panax ginseng using a novel bioreactor. Palazón, J., Mallol, A., Eibl, R., Lettenbauer, C., Cusidó, R.M., Piñol, M.T. Planta Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of underivatized dencichine (beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid) in Panax medicinal plant species. Koh, H.L., Lau, A.J., Chan, E.C. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Antioxidant effects of Chinese traditional medicine: focus on trilinolein isolated from the Chinese herb sanchi (Panax pseudoginseng). Chan, P., Tomlinson, B. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (2000) [Pubmed]
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