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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Inhibition of TLR-4/MD-2 signaling by RP105/MD-1.

Activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling by microbial and host molecular signatures is critical to the induction of immune responses. Such signaling is, perforce, kept under tight control. We recently discovered a novel endogenous inhibitor of TLR-4 - RP105. Initially identified as a B-cell-specific molecule with a role in B-cell proliferation in response to RP105 mAb and LPS, RP105 is a TLR-4 homologue. Further, like TLR-4 whose surface expression and signaling depends upon co-expression of the secreted protein MD-2, surface expression of RP105 is dependent upon co-expression of the MD2 homologue, MD-1. Unlike the TLRs, however, RP105 lacks a signaling domain, having the apparent structure of a TLR inhibitor. Further, RP105 is not B-cell-specific; its expression directly mirrors that of TLR-4 on dendritic cells and macrophages. These considerations suggested a role for RP105 as a physiological inhibitor of TLR-4 signaling. Indeed, we have recently found that: (i) RP105 is a specific inhibitor of TLR-4 signaling in HEK293 cells; (ii) RP105/MD-1 interacts directly with TLR-4/MD-2, inhibiting the ability of this signaling complex to bind LPS; (iii) RP105 regulates TLR-4 signaling in dendritic cells and macrophages; and (iv) RP105 regulates in vivo responses to LPS.[1]


  1. Inhibition of TLR-4/MD-2 signaling by RP105/MD-1. Divanovic, S., Trompette, A., Atabani, S.F., Madan, R., Golenbock, D.T., Visintin, A., Finberg, R.W., Tarakhovsky, A., Vogel, S.N., Belkaid, Y., Kurt-Jones, E.A., Karp, C.L. J. Endotoxin Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
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