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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of B-Lymphocytes


Psychiatry related information on B-Lymphocytes

  • Our data suggest that an IL-6 autocrine self stimulation confers on B cells a selective growth advantage and results in the induction of progression of the malignant state of B cells [6].
  • A fusion protein containing a B cell lymphoma idiotype (Id) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a potent stimulator of tumor immunity [7].
  • Three children developed normal B cell immunity, two of whom received ablative conditioning therapy with either radiation or busulfan [8].
  • These results suggested that antigen-stimulated NKT cells might play a critical role not only in early defense mechanisms but also in early B-cell activation through IL-4 production [9].
  • Dysregulation of IL-6 synthesis is thought to play a role in the development of a number of age-related conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and B cell malignancies [10].

High impact information on B-Lymphocytes

  • PD-1 and BTLA also are expressed on B cells and may have broader immunoregulatory functions [11].
  • Recent data indicate that Notch can also direct the differentiation and activity of peripheral T and B cells [12].
  • Pax5 restricts the developmental options of lymphoid progenitors to the B cell lineage by repressing the transcription of lineage-inappropriate genes and simultaneously activating the expression of B-lymphoid signaling molecules [13].
  • BAFF AND APRIL: a tutorial on B cell survival [14].
  • Plasma cells that result from antigen activation of B-1 and marginal zone B cells provide the first, rapid response to antigen [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of B-Lymphocytes


Biological context of B-Lymphocytes


Anatomical context of B-Lymphocytes

  • Therefore, CD28 receptor stimulation is required for T cell responses to antigens and for B cell responses to T-dependent antigens [26].
  • Other cells in this group participate in cognate cellular interactions with helper T cells in which the recognition of both antigen and a class II MHC molecule on the B-cell surface is key to activation [27].
  • In addition, IL-10 likely contributes to regulating proliferation and differentiation of B cells, mast cells, and thymocytes [28].
  • CD21 is also expressed by follicular dendritic cells and mediates the long-term retention of antigen that is required for the maintenance of memory B cells [29].
  • Our results indicate that Fus is essential for viability of neonatal animals, influences lymphocyte development in a non-cell-intrinsic manner, has an intrinsic role in the proliferative responses of B cells to specific mitogenic stimuli and is required for the maintenance of genomic stability [30].

Associations of B-Lymphocytes with chemical compounds

  • Covalent attachment of activated complement C3 (C3d) to antigen links innate and adaptive immunity by targeting antigen to follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and B cells via specific receptors CD21 and CD35 [31].
  • In both T- and B-lymphocyte activation, antigen receptor or mitogen stimulation results in phosphoinositide turnover, generation of InsP3 and diacylglycerol, and a sustained rise in intracellular Ca2+, from both intracellular Ca2+ stores release and enhanced transmembrane Ca2+ influx [32].
  • Most recent evidence suggests that complement also regulates elimination of self-reactive B cells, as breeding of mice that are deficient in C4 or CD21/CD35 with the lupus-prone strain of lpr mice demonstrates an exacerbation of disease due to an increase in autoantibodies [31].
  • In contrast, two other polyclonal B cell activators, lipopolysaccharide and phorbol myristate acetate, failed to induce any of these effects [33].
  • Functional maturation of B lymphocytes correlates with expression of the B lineage-specific cell surface glycoprotein CD22 [34].

Gene context of B-Lymphocytes

  • Regulation of B lymphocyte responses to foreign and self-antigens by the CD19/CD21 complex [29].
  • This complex reduces the threshold for B cell activation via the B cell receptor by bridging Ag specific recognition and CD21-mediated complement recognition [35].
  • Soluble recombinant forms of gp39 containing these mutations were unable to bind CD40 and drive normal B cell proliferation [23].
  • We further demonstrate that CD22 recognizes a second ligand, CD75, expressed predominantly on activated B cells and shown to be a cell surface alpha 2-6 sialyltransferase [34].
  • Independent regulation of the two Pax5 alleles during B-cell development [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of B-Lymphocytes


  1. Immunobiology of CR2, the B lymphocyte receptor for Epstein-Barr virus and the C3d complement fragment. Cooper, N.R., Moore, M.D., Nemerow, G.R. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. IL-13 effector functions. Wynn, T.A. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Bcl10 is involved in t(1;14)(p22;q32) of MALT B cell lymphoma and mutated in multiple tumor types. Willis, T.G., Jadayel, D.M., Du, M.Q., Peng, H., Perry, A.R., Abdul-Rauf, M., Price, H., Karran, L., Majekodunmi, O., Wlodarska, I., Pan, L., Crook, T., Hamoudi, R., Isaacson, P.G., Dyer, M.J. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Nitric oxide produced by human B lymphocytes inhibits apoptosis and Epstein-Barr virus reactivation. Mannick, J.B., Asano, K., Izumi, K., Kieff, E., Stamler, J.S. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Radiolabeled-antibody therapy of B-cell lymphoma with autologous bone marrow support. Press, O.W., Eary, J.F., Appelbaum, F.R., Martin, P.J., Badger, C.C., Nelp, W.B., Glenn, S., Butchko, G., Fisher, D., Porter, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Growth autonomy and tumorigenicity of interleukin 6-dependent B cells transfected with interleukin 6 cDNA. Tohyama, N., Karasuyama, H., Tada, T. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Induction of tumor immunity by autologous B lymphoma cells expressing a genetically engineered idiotype. Selmayr, M., Strehl, J., Kremer, J.P., Kremmer, E., Doenecke, A., Hallek, M., Menzel, H., Thielemans, K., Thierfelder, S., Mocikat, R. Gene Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Bone marrow transplantation for T-B- severe combined immunodeficiency disease in Athabascan-speaking native Americans. O'Marcaigh, A.S., DeSantes, K., Hu, D., Pabst, H., Horn, B., Li, L., Cowan, M.J. Bone Marrow Transplant. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. alpha-galactosylceramide induces early B-cell activation through IL-4 production by NKT cells. Kitamura, H., Ohta, A., Sekimoto, M., Sato, M., Iwakabe, K., Nakui, M., Yahata, T., Meng, H., Koda, T., Nishimura, S., Kawano, T., Taniguchi, M., Nishimura, T. Cell. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. The influence of age and gender on serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), IL-6, IL-6 soluble receptor (IL-6 sR) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) levels in normal healthy blood donors. Young, D.G., Skibinski, G., Mason, J.I., James, K. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. The B7 family revisited. Greenwald, R.J., Freeman, G.J., Sharpe, A.H. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Regulation of lymphoid development, differentiation, and function by the Notch pathway. Maillard, I., Fang, T., Pear, W.S. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Transcriptional control of early B cell development. Busslinger, M. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. BAFF AND APRIL: a tutorial on B cell survival. Mackay, F., Schneider, P., Rennert, P., Browning, J. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Regulatory mechanisms that determine the development and function of plasma cells. Calame, K.L., Lin, K.I., Tunyaplin, C. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Transfer of allergen-specific IgE-mediated hypersensitivity with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Agosti, J.M., Sprenger, J.D., Lum, L.G., Witherspoon, R.P., Fisher, L.D., Storb, R., Henderson, W.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine for patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia resistant to fludarabine. Saven, A., Lemon, R.H., Piro, L.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine for patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia resistant to fludarabine. Delannoy, A., Hanique, G., Ferrant, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Cooperativity and hierarchical levels of functional organization in the SV40 enhancer. Fromental, C., Kanno, M., Nomiyama, H., Chambon, P. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Acquired C1-inhibitor deficiency associated with antiidiotypic antibody to monoclonal immunoglobulins. Geha, R.S., Quinti, I., Austen, K.F., Cicardi, M., Sheffer, A., Rosen, F.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Antigen receptors on B lymphocytes. Reth, M. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Lpr and gld: single gene models of systemic autoimmunity and lymphoproliferative disease. Cohen, P.L., Eisenberg, R.A. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. The CD40 ligand, gp39, is defective in activated T cells from patients with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome. Aruffo, A., Farrington, M., Hollenbaugh, D., Li, X., Milatovich, A., Nonoyama, S., Bajorath, J., Grosmaire, L.S., Stenkamp, R., Neubauer, M. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Mice lacking MHC class II molecules. Cosgrove, D., Gray, D., Dierich, A., Kaufman, J., Lemeur, M., Benoist, C., Mathis, D. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Constitutive expression of the Id1 gene impairs mouse B cell development. Sun, X.H. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. The role of the CD28 receptor during T cell responses to antigen. Linsley, P.S., Ledbetter, J.A. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Regulation of B-cell growth and differentiation by soluble factors. Howard, M., Paul, W.E. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Interleukin-10. Moore, K.W., O'Garra, A., de Waal Malefyt, R., Vieira, P., Mosmann, T.R. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Regulation of B lymphocyte responses to foreign and self-antigens by the CD19/CD21 complex. Fearon, D.T., Carroll, M.C. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Fus deficiency in mice results in defective B-lymphocyte development and activation, high levels of chromosomal instability and perinatal death. Hicks, G.G., Singh, N., Nashabi, A., Mai, S., Bozek, G., Klewes, L., Arapovic, D., White, E.K., Koury, M.J., Oltz, E.M., Van Kaer, L., Ruley, H.E. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. The role of complement and complement receptors in induction and regulation of immunity. Carroll, M.C. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Patch clamp studies of lymphocyte activation. Gardner, P. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. B lymphocyte receptors and polyphosphoinositide degradation. Bijsterbosch, M.K., Meade, C.J., Turner, G.A., Klaus, G.G. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  34. The B lymphocyte adhesion molecule CD22 interacts with leukocyte common antigen CD45RO on T cells and alpha 2-6 sialyltransferase, CD75, on B cells. Stamenkovic, I., Sgroi, D., Aruffo, A., Sy, M.S., Anderson, T. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  35. CD81 (TAPA-1): a molecule involved in signal transduction and cell adhesion in the immune system. Levy, S., Todd, S.C., Maecker, H.T. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Independent regulation of the two Pax5 alleles during B-cell development. Nutt, S.L., Vambrie, S., Steinlein, P., Kozmik, Z., Rolink, A., Weith, A., Busslinger, M. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Predominantly T-cell infiltrate in rheumatoid synovial membranes. Van Boxel, J.A., Paget, S.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  38. V(D)J recombinase induction in splenic B lymphocytes is inhibited by antigen-receptor signalling. Hertz, M., Kouskoff, V., Nakamura, T., Nemazee, D. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  39. Donor-specific B-cell tolerance after ABO-incompatible infant heart transplantation. Fan, X., Ang, A., Pollock-Barziv, S.M., Dipchand, A.I., Ruiz, P., Wilson, G., Platt, J.L., West, L.J. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  40. TCR-induced transmembrane signaling by peptide/MHC class II via associated Ig-alpha/beta dimers. Lang, P., Stolpa, J.C., Freiberg, B.A., Crawford, F., Kappler, J., Kupfer, A., Cambier, J.C. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  41. Requirement for NF-kappaB in osteoclast and B-cell development. Franzoso, G., Carlson, L., Xing, L., Poljak, L., Shores, E.W., Brown, K.D., Leonardi, A., Tran, T., Boyce, B.F., Siebenlist, U. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
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