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Gene Review

CD180  -  CD180 molecule

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CD180 antigen, LY64, Ly78, Lymphocyte antigen 64, RP105, ...
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Disease relevance of CD180


High impact information on CD180

  • RP105 is a B-cell surface molecule that has been recently assigned as CD180 [3].
  • RP105 is associated with MD-1 and transmits an activation signal in human B cells [4].
  • The B-cell activation pathway using RP105 is conserved in humans [4].
  • Moreover, the anti-RP105 MoAb activates B cells, leading to increases in cell size, expression of a costimulatory molecule CD80, and DNA synthesis [4].
  • MD-1 is anchored by radioprotective 105 (RP105), and MD-2 is associated with TLR4 [5].

Biological context of CD180


Anatomical context of CD180

  • Analysis of transfectant cell lines and gene-targeted mice revealed that both MD-2 and MD-1 are involved in the recognition of LPS as well as in the regulation of intracellular distribution and the surface expression of TLR4 and RP105, respectively [2].
  • Further, RP105 is not B-cell-specific; its expression directly mirrors that of TLR-4 on dendritic cells and macrophages [8].
  • For the assay of autoantibodies, RP105-positive and RP105-negative B cells were cultured separately for 10 days with anti-CD3 antibody-stimulated T cells [9].
  • While previous studies have shown that RP105 is expressed on surface IgM+IgD+2 B cells in mice, human RP105 was shown to be expressed on all subsets of mature B cells and dendritic cells [10].

Associations of CD180 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of CD180

  • Separate studies of a Radioprotective 105 (RP105) and MD-1 heterodimer expressed by cells led to the identification of MD-2 as a molecule associated with TLR4 [11].
  • SAC and IL-6 enhanced production of IgG and IgM by RP105-negative B cells but failed to induce such production by RP105-positive B cells [9].

Other interactions of CD180

  • Ten human TLRs have been cloned as well as RP105, a protein similar to TLR4 but lacking the intracellular signaling domain [12].
  • To identify potential sites of action, we used quantitative real-time RT-PCR to examine systematically the expression of mRNAs encoding all known human TLRs, RP105, and several other proteins important in TLR functions (e.g., MD-1, MD-2, CD14, MyD88) [12].
  • Little or no TLR5 and RP105 mRNA expression was observed in HUVEC, whereas a moderate level was detected in PBMC and THP-1 cells [13].
  • Inhibition of TLR-4/MD-2 signaling by RP105/MD-1 [8].
  • METHODS: RP105-positive and RP105-negative B cells, sorted by cell sorter, were cultured for 5 days without stimulation, or were stimulated with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1 strain (SAC) or recombinant interleukin-6 (IL-6) [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CD180


  1. Expression of CD180, a toll-like receptor homologue, is up-regulated in children with Kawasaki disease. Imayoshi, M., Yamamoto, S., Watanabe, M., Nishimura, S., Tashiro, K., Zaitsu, M., Tasaki, H., Kimoto, M., Hamasaki, Y., Ishii, E. J. Mol. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Role of TLR4/MD-2 and RP105/MD-1 in innate recognition of lipopolysaccharide. Kimoto, M., Nagasawa, K., Miyake, K. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Requirement for MD-1 in cell surface expression of RP105/CD180 and B-cell responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide. Nagai, Y., Shimazu, R., Ogata, H., Akashi, S., Sudo, K., Yamasaki, H., Hayashi, S., Iwakura, Y., Kimoto, M., Miyake, K. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. RP105 is associated with MD-1 and transmits an activation signal in human B cells. Miura, Y., Shimazu, R., Miyake, K., Akashi, S., Ogata, H., Yamashita, Y., Narisawa, Y., Kimoto, M. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. The functional and structural properties of MD-2 required for lipopolysaccharide binding are absent in MD-1. Tsuneyoshi, N., Fukudome, K., Kohara, J., Tomimasu, R., Gauchat, J.F., Nakatake, H., Kimoto, M. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular cloning of a human RP105 homologue and chromosomal localization of the mouse and human RP105 genes (Ly64 and LY64). Miura, Y., Miyake, K., Yamashita, Y., Shimazu, R., Copeland, N.G., Gilbert, D.J., Jenkins, N.A., Inazawa, J., Abe, T., Kimoto, M. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Anti-human RP105 sera induces lymphocyte proliferation. Roshak, A.K., Anderson, K.M., Holmes, S.D., Jonak, Z., Bolognese, B., Terrett, J., Marshall, L.A. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Inhibition of TLR-4/MD-2 signaling by RP105/MD-1. Divanovic, S., Trompette, A., Atabani, S.F., Madan, R., Golenbock, D.T., Visintin, A., Finberg, R.W., Tarakhovsky, A., Vogel, S.N., Belkaid, Y., Kurt-Jones, E.A., Karp, C.L. J. Endotoxin Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. RP105-lacking B cells from lupus patients are responsible for the production of immunoglobulins and autoantibodies. Kikuchi, Y., Koarada, S., Tada, Y., Ushiyama, O., Morito, F., Suzuki, N., Ohta, A., Miyake, K., Kimoto, M., Horiuchi, T., Nagasawa, K. Arthritis Rheum. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular cloning of human RP105. Fugier-Vivier, I., de Bouteiller, O., Guret, C., Fossiez, F., Banchereau, J., Mattei, M.G., Aït-Yahia, S., Garcia, E., Lebecque, S., Liu, Y.J. Eur. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Innate recognition of lipopolysaccharide by CD14 and toll-like receptor 4-MD-2: unique roles for MD-2. Miyake, K. Int. Immunopharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Tissue expression of human Toll-like receptors and differential regulation of Toll-like receptor mRNAs in leukocytes in response to microbes, their products, and cytokines. Zarember, K.A., Godowski, P.J. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Possible involvement of toll-like receptor 4 in endothelial cell activation of larger vessels in response to lipopolysaccharide. Hijiya, N., Miyake, K., Akashi, S., Matsuura, K., Higuchi, Y., Yamamoto, S. Pathobiology (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Difference in B cell activation between dermatomyositis and polymyositis: analysis of the expression of RP105 on peripheral blood B cells. Kikuchi, Y., Koarada, S., Tada, Y., Ushiyama, O., Morito, F., Suzuki, N., Ohta, A., Horiuchi, T., Miyake, K., Nagasawa, K. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
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