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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Carbonylation of cornified envelopes in the stratum corneum.

Stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the skin, is continuously exposed to oxidative stress via sunlight, lipid peroxidation, and is subsequently accompanied by oxidative modification. Previous studies have shown that major oxidative target proteins in the SC are keratins. However, it remains unclear to date whether cornified envelopes (CEs), protein envelopes of the corneocytes (cornified cells), would be oxidized. In this study, we first revealed oxidative modification of CEs using labeled hydrazide derivatives to detect carbonyl moieties. Carbonylation of CEs was confirmed by reaction with monoclonal antibodies against aldehyde-bound proteins, including anti-acrolein, anti-crotonaldehyde, anti-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. The extent of carbonylation is stronger in CEs from the face, a sun-exposed area, than those from the inside of upper arm, an unexposed area. Carbonylation of CEs did not depend on their maturity, as evaluated by loss of involucrin antigenicity during maturation process, suggesting that CEs are carbonylated regardless of their maturation stage.[1]


  1. Carbonylation of cornified envelopes in the stratum corneum. Hirao, T., Takahashi, M. FEBS Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
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