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Chemical Compound Review

Tubazide     pyridine-4-carbohydrazide

Synonyms: Abdizide, Armacide, Armazide, Bacillin, Chemidon, ...
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Disease relevance of Isonex


Psychiatry related information on Isonex


High impact information on Isonex


Chemical compound and disease context of Isonex


Biological context of Isonex

  • The most common errors were the addition of a single drug to a failing regimen, failure to identify preexisting or acquired drug resistance, initiation of an inadequate primary regimen, failure to identify and address noncompliance, and inappropriate isoniazid preventive therapy [19].
  • Isoniazid-rifampin fulminant hepatitis. A possible consequence of the enhancement of isoniazid hepatotoxicity by enzyme induction [20].
  • For the control group, we randomly selected 33 patients with HIV-1 infection and isolation of a strain of M tuberculosis susceptible to isoniazid, rifampicin, or both, who were treated in Ramón y Cajal Hospital. Infection-control policies and practices were implemented [21].
  • A possible relation between susceptibility of patients to isoniazid liver injury and rapid metabolism (acetylation) of the drug has been found [22].
  • Examination of isoniazid metabolites showed that patients with rapid acetylator phenotype hydrolyze much more isoniazid to isonicotinic acid and the free hydrazine moiety than do slow acetylators [22].

Anatomical context of Isonex


Associations of Isonex with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Isonex

  • Of the 36 isoniazid-resistant strains, 23 had mutations in the katG gene, and 5 of these also had mutations in the inhA gene [33].
  • So far, all procaryotic NATs resemble the human enzyme which acetylates isoniazid (NAT2) [30].
  • Furthermore, under the administration of isoniazid, the volunteers with CYP2E1 c1/c1 genotype had higher CYP2E1 activity than those with other genotypes had and, hence, might produce more hepatotoxins [34].
  • In contrast, native HPRG bound to hydrazide or nickel chelate surfaces strongly stimulated the activation of plasminogen by tissue plasminogen activator, but not by urokinase or streptokinase [35].
  • The corresponding region carrying these genes in Mycobacterium leprae, an organism not sensitive to isoniazid, has a complete oxyR gene divergently transcribed from ahpC [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Isonex

  • Active tuberculosis developed in only 1 of 534 persons with positive tuberculin tests or previous reactions who were treated with isoniazid, but in 79 (2.4 per cent) of 3270 persons who were not (P less than 0.001) [37].
  • This is the final report of 30 years of observation of isoniazid prophylaxis and chemotherapy of tuberculosis in children [38].
  • Toxic effects of isoniazid in tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis. Role of biochemical monitoring in 1,000 patients [39].
  • Tuberculin testing appears important primarily for black women, since those who have negative tuberculin skin tests may not be candidates for isoniazid therapy [40].
  • Failure rates among retreatment cases were higher in those with multidrug-resistant TB, with any isoniazid resistance other than multidrug resistance, and in cases with TB resistant to isoniazid only [41].


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  13. Compensatory ahpC gene expression in isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sherman, D.R., Mdluli, K., Hickey, M.J., Arain, T.M., Morris, S.L., Barry, C.E., Stover, C.K. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. inhA, a gene encoding a target for isoniazid and ethionamide in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Banerjee, A., Dubnau, E., Quemard, A., Balasubramanian, V., Um, K.S., Wilson, T., Collins, D., de Lisle, G., Jacobs, W.R. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Autoantibodies associated with lupus induced by diverse drugs target a similar epitope in the (H2A-H2B)-DNA complex. Rubin, R.L., Bell, S.A., Burlingame, R.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Acquired rifamycin monoresistance in patients with HIV-related tuberculosis treated with once-weekly rifapentine and isoniazid. Tuberculosis Trials Consortium. Vernon, A., Burman, W., Benator, D., Khan, A., Bozeman, L. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Randomised trial of isoniazid versus rifampicin and pyrazinamide for prevention of tuberculosis in HIV-1 infection. Halsey, N.A., Coberly, J.S., Desormeaux, J., Losikoff, P., Atkinson, J., Moulton, L.H., Contave, M., Johnson, M., Davis, H., Geiter, L., Johnson, E., Huebner, R., Boulos, R., Chaisson, R.E. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Medical causes of seizures. Delanty, N., Vaughan, C.J., French, J.A. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Pitfalls in the care of patients with tuberculosis. Common errors and their association with the acquisition of drug resistance. Mahmoudi, A., Iseman, M.D. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Isoniazid-rifampin fulminant hepatitis. A possible consequence of the enhancement of isoniazid hepatotoxicity by enzyme induction. Pessayre, D., Bentata, M., Degott, C., Nouel, O., Miguet, J.P., Rueff, B., Benhamou, J.P. Gastroenterology (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium bovis resistant to 11 drugs in people with advanced HIV-1 infection. Guerrero, A., Cobo, J., Fortún, J., Navas, E., Quereda, C., Asensio, A., Cañón, J., Blazquez, J., Gómez-Mampaso, E. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Isoniazid liver injury: clinical spectrum, pathology, and probable pathogenesis. Mitchell, J.R., Zimmerman, H.J., Ishak, K.G., Thorgeirsson, U.P., Timbrell, J.A., Snodgrass, W.R., Nelson, S.D. Ann. Intern. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  23. Isoniazid and iproniazid: activation of metabolites to toxic intermediates in man and rat. Nelson, S.D., Mitchell, J.R., Timbrell, J.A., Snodgrass, W.R., Corcoran, G.B. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  24. Isoniazid and bile duct cancer. Lowenfels, A.B., Norman, J. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  25. The fungicidal mechanisms of human monocytes. I. Evidence for myeloperoxidase-linked and myeloperoxidase-independent candidacidal mechanisms. Lehrer, R.I. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  26. The neurotoxicity of antibacterial agents. Snavely, S.R., Hodges, G.R. Ann. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Identification of differentially expressed mRNA in prokaryotic organisms by customized amplification libraries (DECAL): the effect of isoniazid on gene expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Alland, D., Kramnik, I., Weisbrod, T.R., Otsubo, L., Cerny, R., Miller, L.P., Jacobs, W.R., Bloom, B.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Increased recurrence of tuberculosis in HIV-1-infected patients in Kenya. Hawken, M., Nunn, P., Gathua, S., Brindle, R., Godfrey-Faussett, P., Githui, W., Odhiambo, J., Batchelor, B., Gilks, C., Morris, J. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Failure of ketoconazole treatment of Blastomyces dermatitidis [corrected] due to interaction of isoniazid and rifampin. Abadie-Kemmerly, S., Pankey, G.A., Dalovisio, J.R., Dalvisio, J.R. Ann. Intern. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. An update on genetic, structural and functional studies of arylamine N-acetyltransferases in eucaryotes and procaryotes. Sim, E., Payton, M., Noble, M., Minchin, R. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Antibody-targeted chemotherapy with CMC-544: a CD22-targeted immunoconjugate of calicheamicin for the treatment of B-lymphoid malignancies. DiJoseph, J.F., Armellino, D.C., Boghaert, E.R., Khandke, K., Dougher, M.M., Sridharan, L., Kunz, A., Hamann, P.R., Gorovits, B., Udata, C., Moran, J.K., Popplewell, A.G., Stephens, S., Frost, P., Damle, N.K. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Elevated serum aminotransferase induced by isoniazid in relation to isoniazid acetylator phenotype. Yamamoto, T., Suou, T., Hirayama, C. Hepatology (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Implications of multidrug resistance for the future of short-course chemotherapy of tuberculosis: a molecular study. Heym, B., Honoré, N., Truffot-Pernot, C., Banerjee, A., Schurra, C., Jacobs, W.R., van Embden, J.D., Grosset, J.H., Cole, S.T. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Cytochrome P450 2E1 genotype and the susceptibility to antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis. Huang, Y.S., Chern, H.D., Su, W.J., Wu, J.C., Chang, S.C., Chiang, C.H., Chang, F.Y., Lee, S.D. Hepatology (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Acceleration of plasminogen activation by tissue plasminogen activator on surface-bound histidine-proline-rich glycoprotein. Borza, D.B., Morgan, W.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a natural mutant with an inactivated oxidative-stress regulatory gene: implications for sensitivity to isoniazid. Deretic, V., Philipp, W., Dhandayuthapani, S., Mudd, M.H., Curcic, R., Garbe, T., Heym, B., Via, L.E., Cole, S.T. Mol. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. Tuberculosis as an endemic and nosocomial infection among the elderly in nursing homes. Stead, W.W., Lofgren, J.P., Warren, E., Thomas, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  38. Thirty years after isoniazid. Its impact on tuberculosis in children and adolescents. Hsu, K.H. JAMA (1984) [Pubmed]
  39. Toxic effects of isoniazid in tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis. Role of biochemical monitoring in 1,000 patients. Byrd, R.B., Horn, B.R., Solomon, D.A., Griggs, G.A. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  40. Isoniazid as preventive therapy in HIV-infected intravenous drug abusers. A decision analysis. Jordan, T.J., Lewit, E.M., Montgomery, R.L., Reichman, L.B. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  41. Standard short-course chemotherapy for drug-resistant tuberculosis: treatment outcomes in 6 countries. Espinal, M.A., Kim, S.J., Suarez, P.G., Kam, K.M., Khomenko, A.G., Migliori, G.B., Baéz, J., Kochi, A., Dye, C., Raviglione, M.C. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
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