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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha suppresses the rat placental glutathione S-transferase gene in normal liver.

The rat placental glutathione S-transferase (GST-P), an isozyme of glutathione S-transferase, is not expressed in normal liver but is highly induced at an early stage of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis and in hepatomas. Recently, we reported that the NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/MafK heterodimer binds to GST-P enhancer 1 (GPE1), a strong enhancer of the GST-P gene, and activates this gene in preneoplastic lesions and hepatomas. In addition to the positive regulation during hepatocarcinogenesis, negative regulatory mechanisms might work to repress GST-P in normal liver, but this remains to be clarified. In this work, we identify the CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) as a negative regulator that binds to GPE1 and suppresses GST-P expression in normal liver. C/EBPalpha binds to part of the GPE1 sequence, and the binding of Nrf2/MafK and C/EBPalpha to GPE1 is mutually exclusive. In a transient-transfection analysis, C/EBPalpha activated GPE1 in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells but strongly inhibited GPE1 activity in hepatoma cells. The expression of C/EBPalpha was specifically suppressed in GST-P-positive preneoplastic foci in the livers of carcinogentreated rats. A chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that C/EBPalpha bound to GPE1 in the normal liver in vivo but did not bind in preneoplastic hepatocytes. Introduction of the C/EBPalpha gene fused with the estrogen receptor ligand-binding domain into hepatoma cells, and subsequent activation by beta-estradiol led to the suppression of endogenous GST-P expression. These results indicate that C/EBPalpha is a negative regulator of GST-P gene expression in normal liver.[1]


  1. CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha suppresses the rat placental glutathione S-transferase gene in normal liver. Ikeda, H., Omoteyama, K., Yoshida, K., Nishi, S., Sakai, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
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