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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Species differences in the metabolism of trichloroethylene to the carcinogenic metabolites trichloroacetate and dichloroacetate.

Differing rates and extent of trichloroethylene (TCE) metabolism have been implicated as being responsible for varying sensitivities of mice and rats to the hepatocarcinogenic effects of TCE. Recent data indicate that the induction of hepatic tumors in mice may be attributed to the metabolites trichloroacetate (TCA) and/or dichloroacetate (DCA). The present study was directed at determining whether mice and rats varied in (1) the peak blood concentrations, (2) the area under the blood concentration over time curves (AUC) for TCE and metabolites in blood, and (3) the net excretion of TCE to these metabolites in urine in the dose range used in the cancer bioassays of TCE, and to contrast the kinetic parameters observed for TCE-derived TCA and DCA with those obtained following direct administration of TCA and DCA. Blood and urine samples were collected over 72 hr from rats and mice after a single oral dose of TCE of 1.5 to 23 mmol/kg. The AUC values from the blood concentration with time profiles of TCE, TCA, and trichloroethanol (TCOH) were similar for Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F1 mice. Likewise, the percentages of initial TCE dose recovered as the urinary metabolites TCA and TCOH were comparable. Nevertheless, the peak blood concentrations of TCE, TCA, and TCOH observed in mice were much greater than those in rats, while the residence time of TCE and metabolites was prolonged in rats relative to that of mice. DCA was detected in the blood of mice but not in rats. The blood concentrations of DCA observed in mice given a carcinogenic dose of TCE (15 mmol/kg) were of the same magnitude as those observed with carcinogenic doses of DCA. In conclusion, the net metabolism of TCE to TCA and TCOH was similar in rats and mice. The initial rates of metabolism of TCE to TCA, however, were much higher in mice, especially as the TCE dose was increased, leading to greater concentrations of TCA and DCA in mice approximated those produced by carcinogenic doses of the chlorinated acetates makes it highly likely that both compounds play a role in the induction of hepatic tumors in mice by TCE.[1]


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