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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The effect of the CD28 activation pathway on the immunosuppressive action of cyclosporine.

The effect of the CD28 activation pathway on the immunosuppressive action of CsA was assessed. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated with anti-CD3, bryostatin (Bryo) a novel activator of protein kinase C (PKC) and anti-CD28 singly or in combination, to which graded doses of CsA were added to determine relative sensitivity. Proliferation, IL-2 production, and IL-2 receptor expression were assessed and the IC50 determined. Lymphocytes stimulated with Bryo exhibited a marginal proliferative response but expressed the IL-2 receptor despite the presence of CsA. Addition of anti-CD3 or anti-CD28 to Bryo-stimulated lymphocytes promoted a vigorous proliferative response. CsA effectively inhibited the proliferative response and IL-2 production induced with anti-CD3 and Bryo but did not inhibit the response of cells stimulated with anti-CD28 and Bryo. However, II-2 receptor expression in both sets of cultures were comparable due to the induction of IL-2 receptor by Bryo and was not inhibited by CsA. Costimulation of lymphocytes with anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 resulted in a 2-3-fold enhancement of proliferation compared with lymphocytes stimulated with anti-CD3 alone. Addition of CsA to lymphocytes stimulated with anti-CD3 resulted in the dose-dependent suppression of the proliferative response and IL-2 production (IC50 = 10-25 nM) but less so for IL-2 receptor expression (IC50 = 100-150 nM). In comparison, the proliferative response and IL-2 production elicited by anti-CD3 + anti-CD28 was more resistant to the effects of CsA (IC50 = 100-200 nM). However, IL-2 receptor expression exhibited comparable sensitivity to CsA (IC50 = 100-200 nM) in the presence of anti-CD28. Combination drug:drug studies revealed that CsA and the protein kinase C inhibitor H-7 were additive for both anti-CD3 and anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 response. On the other hand, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H-8 was synergistic with CsA in inhibiting the response of lymphocytes to anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 but only additive for responses to anti-CD3. Taken together, these data suggest that CsA inhibits T cell activation at two distinct levels, leading to inhibition of IL-2 production and inhibition of IL-2 receptor expression. Activation of the CD28 pathway partially overcomes the inhibitory activity of CsA on IL-2 production and may be mediated by indirect activation of a cGMP-dependent protein kinase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[1]


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