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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

TLR2 and TLR4 differentially regulate B7-1 resulting in distinct cytokine responses to the mycoplasma superantigen MAM as well as to disease induced by Mycoplasma arthritidis.

Mycoplasma arthritidis mitogen (MAM) is a superantigen secreted by M. arthritidis, an agent of murine arthritis and toxicity. We previously demonstrated that C3H mouse sub-strains differing in expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), differed in immune reactivity to MAM due to differential engagement of TLR2 and TLR4. Here we examine the role of B7 co-stimulatory molecules in immune outcome and disease manifestations resulting from these different MAM/TLR2 and MAM/TLR4 interactions. Injections of MAM into C3H/HeJ mice upregulated expression of B7-1 but not B7-2 on peritoneal adherent cells, whereas B7-1 expression was lower on cells from C3H/HeSnJ mice. Anti-B7-1 antibody but not anti-B7-2, injected in vivo, changed the type 1 cytokines in MAM-injected C3H/HeJ mice to a type 2 cytokines and, conversely, the type 2 response in C3H/HeSnJ mice injected with anti-B7-1 shifted to a type 1 pattern. Whereas anti-B7-2 exerted no effect on disease in either mouse strain, anti-B7-1 significantly delayed the lethal toxicity of M. arthritidis in C3H/HeJ mice but enhanced arthritis in C3H/HeSnJ mice. Thus, TLR-mediated regulation of B7-1 results in diverse cytokine profiles in C3H sub-strains, and that the interaction of MAM with different TLR(s) may differentially affect cytokine responses and ultimately, M. arthritidis disease.[1]


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