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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Planar polarity is positively regulated by casein kinase Iepsilon in Drosophila.

Members of the casein kinase I (CKI) family have been implicated in regulating canonical Wnt/Wingless (Wg) signaling by phosphorylating multiple pathway components. Overexpression of CKI in vertebrate embryos activates Wg signaling, and one target is thought to be the cytoplasmic effector Dishevelled (Dsh), which is an in vitro target of CKI phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Dsh by CKI has also been suggested to switch its activity from noncanonical to canonical Wingless signaling. However, in vivo loss-of-function experiments have failed to identify a clear role for CKI in positive regulation of Wg signaling. By examining hypomorphic mutations of the Drosophila CKIepsilon homolog discs overgrown (dco)/double-time, we now show that it is an essential component of the noncanonical/planar cell polarity pathway. Genetic interactions indicate that dco acts positively in planar polarity signaling, demonstrating that it does not act as a switch between canonical and noncanonical pathways. Mutations in dco result in a reduced level of Dishevelled phosphorylation in vivo. Furthermore, in these mutants, Dishevelled fails to adopt its characteristic asymmetric subcellular localisation at the distal end of pupal wing cells, and the site of hair outgrowth is disrupted. Finally, we also find that dco function in polarity is partially redundant with CKIalpha.[1]


  1. Planar polarity is positively regulated by casein kinase Iepsilon in Drosophila. Strutt, H., Price, M.A., Strutt, D. Curr. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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