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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Nrf2-mediated induction of cytoprotective enzymes by 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 is attenuated by alkenal/one oxidoreductase.

NADPH-dependent alkenal/one oxidoreductase (Aor) was discovered to be highly inducible in rat liver following treatment with the cancer chemopreventive agent 3H-1, 2-dithiole-3-thione. Aor was further characterized as an Nrf2-regulated antioxidative enzyme that reduces carbon-carbon double bonds in a variety of alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones. 15-Deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is a reactive membrane lipid metabolite that activates multiple pathways, including Nrf2-mediated induction of cytoprotective enzymes. Physiologically, it is postulated that 15d-PGJ2 alkylates key regulatory proteins via the electrophilic carbon centers found in two alpha, beta-unsaturated ketone moieties. This current study addresses the metabolism of 15d-PGJ2 by rat Aor (rAor) and subsequent deactivation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway by both rat and human AOR. We demonstrate that induction of NADPH-dependent quinone oxidoreductase activity by 15d-PGJ2 is markedly attenuated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts that overexpress rAor. Luciferase reporter assay and quantitative real-time PCR confirmed these findings. Concentrations required for doubling the NADPH-dependent quinone oxidoreductase response are increased from 1.8 microm in wild-type to >10 microm in rat Aor transgenic fibroblasts. 15d-PGJ2 is metabolized by recombinant rAor with a Km of 9.6 microm and k(cat) of 18.5 min(-1). The major product is 12,13-dihydro-15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (dihydro-15d-PGJ2). The reduction of C=C by Aor yielding dihydro-15d-PGJ2 abolishes the inducibility in an antioxidant response element-driven luciferase assay. Collectively, these results demonstrate that 15d-PGJ2 can be catabolized by Aor, thereby attenuating subsequent Nrf2 signaling and possibly inflammatory and apoptotic processes also influenced by 15d-PGJ2.[1]


  1. Nrf2-mediated induction of cytoprotective enzymes by 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 is attenuated by alkenal/one oxidoreductase. Yu, X., Egner, P.A., Wakabayashi, J., Wakabayashi, N., Yamamoto, M., Kensler, T.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
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