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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Postnatal development and gender-dependent expression of TIP39 in the rat brain.

Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) is a selective agonist of the parathyroid hormone 2 ( PTH2) receptor. The topographical distributions of TIP39 and the PTH2 receptor in the brain, described for young male rats, suggested that TIP39 has limbic and endocrine functions. In the present study, we investigated the expression of TIP39 and the PTH2 receptor in male and female rat brain during postnatal development by means of in situ hybridization histochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR, and immunocytochemistry. TIP39's distribution and expression levels are similar in young female and male brains. TIP39 mRNA levels peak at postnatal day 14 and subsequently decline both in the subparafascicular area and in the medial paralemniscal nucleus, the two major sites where TIP39 is synthesized. A greater developmental decrease in TIP39 expression in males leads to greater levels in older females than older males. The decrease is partially reversed by prepubertal but not postpubertal gonadectomy. TIP39 peptide levels in cell bodies change in parallel with mRNA levels, whereas TIP39 appears and disappears somewhat later in nerve fibers. In addition, TIP39 peptide levels are also sexually dimorphic in older rats. In contrast, PTH2 receptor expression in the brain does not decrease during puberty and is not sexually dimorphic even in old animals. The appearance of TIP39 during early, and decline during late, postnatal development together with the gender-dependent levels in mature animals suggests that TIP39 may play a role in sexual maturation or gender-specific functions.[1]


  1. Postnatal development and gender-dependent expression of TIP39 in the rat brain. Dobolyi, A., Wang, J., Irwin, S., Usdin, T.B. J. Comp. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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