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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Redundant Toll-like receptor signaling in the pulmonary host response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Activation of pulmonary defenses against Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), an adaptor for Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. To determine which TLRs mediate recognition of P. aeruginosa, we measured cytokine responses of bone marrow cells from wild-type mice and mice lacking TLR2 (TLR2(-/-)), TLR4 (TLR4(-/-)), TLR2 and TLR4 (TLR2/4(-/-)), or MyD88 (MyD88(-/-)) to wild-type P. aeruginosa and to fliC P. aeruginosa, which lacks the TLR5 ligand flagellin. Mice also were challenged with aerosolized bacteria to determine cytokine responses, lung inflammation, and bacterial clearance. TNF induction required MyD88 and was absent in TLR2/4(-/-) cells in response to fliC but not wild-type P. aeruginosa, whereas TLR2(-/-) cells exhibited augmented responses. In vivo, TLR4(-/-) mice responded to wild-type P. aeruginosa with reduced cytokine production and inflammation, but intact bacterial clearance, while TLR2(-/-) mice had partially impaired cytokine responses and delayed bacterial killing despite normal inflammation. When challenged with fliC, MyD88(-/-) mice failed to mount early cytokine and inflammatory responses or control bacterial replication, resulting in necrotizing lung injury and lethal disseminated infection. TLR4(-/-) and TLR2/4(-/-) mice responded to fliC infection with severely limited inflammatory and cytokine responses but intact bacterial clearance. TLR2(-/-) mice had partially reduced cytokine responses but augmented inflammation and preserved bacterial killing. These data indicate that TLR4- and flagellin-induced signals mediate most of the acute inflammatory response to Pseudomonas and that TLR2 has a counterregulatory role. However, MyD88-dependent pathways, in addition to those downstream of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5, are required for pulmonary defense against P. aeruginosa.[1]


  1. Redundant Toll-like receptor signaling in the pulmonary host response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Skerrett, S.J., Wilson, C.B., Liggitt, H.D., Hajjar, A.M. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
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