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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A study of genetic (CYP2D6 and ABCB1) and environmental (drug inhibitors and inducers) variables that may influence plasma risperidone levels.

Risperidone (R) is metabolized to 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OHR) by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). The main objective of this naturalistic study was to investigate the variables associated with two plasma ratios: the plasma R:9-OHR concentration ratio and the total concentration-to-dose (C:D) ratio. These ratios were studied as continuous measures by linear regression analyses and as three dichotomous variables in logistic regression analyses: R:9-OHR ratio >1 (indicative of lack of CYP2D6 activity), C:D ratio >14 (indicative of diminished R elimination), and C:D ratio <3.5 (indicative of increased R elimination). Plasma R levels; genotypes for CYP2D6, CYP3A5; and ABCB1 genes, and co-medication, including CYP inhibitors and CYP3A inducers, were studied in 277 patients. Almost all CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs) had an inverted R:9-OHR ratio (>1). Having a CYP2D6 PM phenotype was strongly associated with a C:D ratio >14 (OR=8.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.0-32.7), indicating diminished R elimination. CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers (UMs) did not exhibit an increased R elimination. Some ABCB1 (or MDR1) variants were significantly associated with increased R:9-OHR ratios and decreased C:D ratios, but the results were neither consistent nor robust. Taking CYP inhibitors was significantly associated with a C:D ratio >14 (OR=3.8; CI=1.7-8.7) and with an inverted R:9-OHR ratio. Taking CYP3A inducers was significantly associated with a C:D ratio <3.5 (OR=41.8; CI=12.7-138), indicating increased R elimination. Female gender and old age appeared to be associated with a lower R elimination. Our study indicated that the CYP2D6 PM phenotype may have a major role in personalizing R doses, whereas the CYP3A5 PM phenotype probably has no role. CYP inducers and inhibitors appear to be relevant to R dosing. New studies are needed, particularly to further assess the role of the CYP2D6 UM phenotype and ABCB1 variants in R pharmacokinetics.[1]


  1. A study of genetic (CYP2D6 and ABCB1) and environmental (drug inhibitors and inducers) variables that may influence plasma risperidone levels. Leon, J., Susce, M.T., Pan, R.M., Wedlund, P.J., Orrego, M.L., Diaz, F.J. Pharmacopsychiatry (2007) [Pubmed]
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