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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Linear Models

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Disease relevance of Linear Models


Psychiatry related information on Linear Models


High impact information on Linear Models

  • The concentration of t-PA antigen correlated with that of the t-PA-PAI-1 complex in a linear regression model (squared correlation coefficient, 0.80; P<0.001) [11].
  • Linear regression analysis revealed that nerve sorbitol content in the diabetics was inversely related to the number of myelinated fibers (P = 0.003) [12].
  • After statistical adjustment for important prognostic factors (age and initial chronicity index) identified by multiple linear regression, the difference in the slopes between the group receiving prednisone and the group receiving cytotoxic drugs was significant (P less than 0.0001) [13].
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of days covered (PDC) by a statin in each quarter during the first year of therapy and every 6 months thereafter; predictors of suboptimal persistence during each interval (PDC <80%) were identified using generalized linear models for repeated measures [14].
  • In linear regression analyses, the only significant predictors of change in CRP on a log scale were randomized pravastatin allocation and baseline CRP levels (P<.001 for both) [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Linear Models


Biological context of Linear Models


Anatomical context of Linear Models

  • When the data were analyzed by multiple linear regression, the percentage of CD4+ cells had a positive effect on these two parameters in patients without AIDS, whereas the percentage of CD4+ cells had no significant effect on unstimulated and IL-2-stimulated NK cell activity in these patients [26].
  • The T cell subpopulation was 5'NT deficient compared to the normal controls, shown as a significant linear regression of T cell 5'NT on the LI% [27].
  • These simulated curves were used to construct the statistical linear model and to test voxel-by-voxel in healthy subjects the hypothesis that dopamine is released in the ventral striatum during periods of unexpected monetary gains, but not during periods of unexpected monetary loss [28].
  • Multivariate linear regression models examined independent effects of diabetes, lean mass, fat mass, visceral fat, and fasting insulin on BMD and bone volume while adjusting for relevant covariates [29].
  • MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Changes in CD4 lymphocyte count and CD4 percentage over time were analysed using linear regression methods for the 271 white and 69 black participants who had at least four semiannual CD4 lymphocyte measurements [30].

Associations of Linear Models with chemical compounds

  • By linear regression analysis of the correlation (r = 0.99) the number of heparin molecules/particle required to promote total inactivation of bound C3b by purified control proteins was 13.8 X 10(6) [31].
  • Linear regression analyses revealed that plasma triglyceride concentrations in all fed, treated rats correlated significantly with triglyceride entry but not very uniformly with plasma or tissue LPL activity [32].
  • Variability across the studies in the proportion of tumors expressing MDR1/gp170 was assessed by use of chi-squared tests of homogeneity, weighted means, and weighted linear regression [33].
  • Linear regression analysis was used to analyze correlations between the various protein levels, DNA-PK activity, or Rad51 foci formation and melphalan cytotoxicity [34].
  • In multivariate log-linear models virtually all the treatment effect was due to zidovudine [35].

Gene context of Linear Models

  • To test this hypothesis, we used step-wise multiple linear regression to examine 10 CAG-containing genes for possible influences on SCA2 age at onset [36].
  • Using a log-linear model, differences in ER, PR, and HER-2 staining were all in the direction of stronger staining in the cores, and were statistically significant [37].
  • Linear regression analysis found no association between NAT2 activity and the levels (unmetabolized plus acid-labile conjugates) of MeIQx or PhIP excreted in urine [38].
  • Linear regression analyses showed that lower total MeIQx (unmetabolized plus the N2-glucuronide and sulfamate metabolites) in urine was associated with higher CYP1A2 activity, whereas total PhIP (unmetabolized plus conjugated) in urine showed no association to CYP1A2 activity [38].
  • Using hierarchical linear regression, a significant independent association was found between the DAT1 10/10-repeat genotype and measures of selective attention and response inhibition after adjusting for age, IQ, and ADHD symptoms [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Linear Models


  1. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA density: racial differences in men without prostate cancer. Henderson, R.J., Eastham, J.A., Culkin, D.J., Kattan, M.W., Whatley, T., Mata, J., Venable, D., Sartor, O. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Cigarette smoking and plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study. Criqui, M.H., Wallace, R.B., Heiss, G., Mishkel, M., Schonfeld, G., Jones, G.T. Circulation (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Individual estimates of European genetic admixture associated with lower body-mass index, plasma glucose, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians. Williams, R.C., Long, J.C., Hanson, R.L., Sievers, M.L., Knowler, W.C. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Role of adenosine on ventricular overdrive suppression in isolated guinea pig hearts and Purkinje fibers. Wesley, R.C., Belardinelli, L. Circ. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Heat production during hypoxic contracture of rat myocardium. Holubarsch, C., Alpert, N.R., Goulette, R., Mulieri, L.A. Circ. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Predictors of duodenal ulcer healing and relapse. Sonnenberg, A., Müller-Lissner, S.A., Vogel, E., Schmid, P., Gonvers, J.J., Peter, P., Strohmeyer, G., Blum, A.L. Gastroenterology (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Age of attainment of peak bone mass is site specific in Swedish men--The GOOD study. Lorentzon, M., Mellström, D., Ohlsson, C. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Depressive symptoms and metabolic control in African-Americans with type 2 diabetes. Gary, T.L., Crum, R.M., Cooper-Patrick, L., Ford, D., Brancati, F.L. Diabetes Care (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Serial neuropsychological assessment and magnetic resonance imaging analysis in multiple sclerosis. Hohol, M.J., Guttmann, C.R., Orav, J., Mackin, G.A., Kikinis, R., Khoury, S.J., Jolesz, F.A., Weiner, H.L. Arch. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Severity of nicotine dependence modulates cue-induced brain activity in regions involved in motor preparation and imagery. Smolka, M.N., Bühler, M., Klein, S., Zimmermann, U., Mann, K., Heinz, A., Braus, D.F. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Prothrombotic coagulation abnormalities preceding the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Chandler, W.L., Jelacic, S., Boster, D.R., Ciol, M.A., Williams, G.D., Watkins, S.L., Igarashi, T., Tarr, P.I. N. Engl. J. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Nerve glucose, fructose, sorbitol, myo-inositol, and fiber degeneration and regeneration in diabetic neuropathy. Dyck, P.J., Zimmerman, B.R., Vilen, T.H., Minnerath, S.R., Karnes, J.L., Yao, J.K., Poduslo, J.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of treatment on the evolution of renal abnormalities in lupus nephritis. Balow, J.E., Austin, H.A., Muenz, L.R., Joyce, K.M., Antonovych, T.T., Klippel, J.H., Steinberg, A.D., Plotz, P.H., Decker, J.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Long-term persistence in use of statin therapy in elderly patients. Benner, J.S., Glynn, R.J., Mogun, H., Neumann, P.J., Weinstein, M.C., Avorn, J. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of statin therapy on C-reactive protein levels: the pravastatin inflammation/CRP evaluation (PRINCE): a randomized trial and cohort study. Albert, M.A., Danielson, E., Rifai, N., Ridker, P.M. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Saccade velocity is controlled by polyglutamine size in spinocerebellar ataxia 2. Velázquez-Pérez, L., Seifried, C., Santos-Falcón, N., Abele, M., Ziemann, U., Almaguer, L.E., Martínez-Góngora, E., Sánchez-Cruz, G., Canales, N., Pérez-González, R., Velázquez-Manresa, M., Viebahn, B., von Stuckrad-Barre, S., Fetter, M., Klockgether, T., Auburger, G. Ann. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Intake of purine-rich foods, protein, and dairy products and relationship to serum levels of uric acid: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Choi, H.K., Liu, S., Curhan, G. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Whole-body fat oxidation rate and plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in men consuming an ad libitum high-carbohydrate or low-carbohydrate diet. Landry, N., Bergeron, N., Archer, R., Samson, P., Corneau, L., Bergeron, J., Dériaz, O. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Relationship between myocardial norepinephrine content and left ventricular function--an endomyocardial biopsy study. Schofer, J., Tews, A., Langes, K., Bleifeld, W., Reimitz, P.E., Mathey, D.G. Eur. Heart J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Association between severity of atopic eczema and degree of sensitization to aeroallergens in schoolchildren. Schäfer, T., Heinrich, J., Wjst, M., Adam, H., Ring, J., Wichmann, H.E. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. The association of skin color with blood pressure in US blacks with low socioeconomic status. Klag, M.J., Whelton, P.K., Coresh, J., Grim, C.E., Kuller, L.H. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Linear organization of the liver cell adhesion molecule L-CAM. Cunningham, B.A., Leutzinger, Y., Gallin, W.J., Sorkin, B.C., Edelman, G.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Total cell content of CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) in neonatal neutrophils: relationship to gestational age. McEvoy, L.T., Zakem-Cloud, H., Tosi, M.F. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Ethinylestradiol stimulates a biliary cholesterol-phospholipid cosecretion mechanism in the hamster. Berr, F., Stellaard, F., Goetz, A., Hammer, C., Paumgartner, G. Hepatology (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Association of nitrate use with risk of new radiographic features of hip osteoarthritis in elderly white women: the study of osteoporotic fractures. Lane, N.E., Williams, E.N., Hung, Y.Y., Hochberg, M.C., Cummings, S.R., Nevitt, M.C. Arthritis Rheum. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Defective natural immunity: an early manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ullum, H., Gøtzsche, P.C., Victor, J., Dickmeiss, E., Skinhøj, P., Pedersen, B.K. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Decreased ecto-5'nucleotidase activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes in human monoclonal gammopathies: correlation with tumor cell kinetics. Massaia, M., Ma, D.D., Boccadoro, M., Golzio, F., Gavarotti, P., Dianzani, U., Pileri, A. Blood (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. In vivo detection of striatal dopamine release during reward: a PET study with [(11)C]raclopride and a single dynamic scan approach. Pappata, S., Dehaene, S., Poline, J.B., Gregoire, M.C., Jobert, A., Delforge, J., Frouin, V., Bottlaender, M., Dolle, F., Di Giamberardino, L., Syrota, A. Neuroimage (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Diabetes is associated independently of body composition with BMD and bone volume in older white and black men and women: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Strotmeyer, E.S., Cauley, J.A., Schwartz, A.V., Nevitt, M.C., Resnick, H.E., Zmuda, J.M., Bauer, D.C., Tylavsky, F.A., de Rekeneire, N., Harris, T.B., Newman, A.B. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Racial differences in rate of CD4 decline in HIV-1-infected homosexual men. Easterbrook, P.J., Farzadegan, H., Hoover, D.R., Palenicek, J., Chmiel, J.S., Kaslow, R.A., Saah, A.J. AIDS (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Surface-associated heparin inhibits zymosan-induced activation of the human alternative complement pathway by augmenting the regulatory action of the control proteins on particle-bound C3b. Kazatchkine, M.D., Fearon, D.T., Silbert, J.E., Austen, K.F. J. Exp. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  32. Sex steroid influence on triglyceride metabolism. Kim, H.J., Kalkhoff, R.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  33. Multidrug resistance in breast cancer: a meta-analysis of MDR1/gp170 expression and its possible functional significance. Trock, B.J., Leonessa, F., Clarke, R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. In vitro evidence for homologous recombinational repair in resistance to melphalan. Wang, Z.M., Chen, Z.P., Xu, Z.Y., Christodoulopoulos, G., Bello, V., Mohr, G., Aloyz, R., Panasci, L.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Effect of zidovudine and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis on progression of HIV-1 infection to AIDS. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Graham, N.M., Zeger, S.L., Park, L.P., Phair, J.P., Detels, R., Vermund, S.H., Ho, M., Saah, A.J. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  36. CAG repeat length in RAI1 is associated with age at onset variability in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). Hayes, S., Turecki, G., Brisebois, K., Lopes-Cendes, I., Gaspar, C., Riess, O., Ranum, L.P., Pulst, S.M., Rouleau, G.A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. Reliance on hormone receptor assays of surgical specimens may compromise outcome in patients with breast cancer. Mann, G.B., Fahey, V.D., Feleppa, F., Buchanan, M.R. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Urinary excretion of unmetabolized and phase II conjugates of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline in humans: relationship to cytochrome P4501A2 and N-acetyltransferase activity. Stillwell, W.G., Kidd, L.C., Wishnok, J.S., Tannenbaum, S.R., Sinha, R. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  39. Association of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) 10/10-repeat genotype with ADHD symptoms and response inhibition in a general population sample. Cornish, K.M., Manly, T., Savage, R., Swanson, J., Morisano, D., Butler, N., Grant, C., Cross, G., Bentley, L., Hollis, C.P. Mol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. Combining fMRI with a pharmacokinetic model to determine which brain areas activated by painful stimulation are specifically modulated by remifentanil. Wise, R.G., Rogers, R., Painter, D., Bantick, S., Ploghaus, A., Williams, P., Rapeport, G., Tracey, I. Neuroimage (2002) [Pubmed]
  41. Infarct artery perfusion and changes in left ventricular volume in the month after acute myocardial infarction. Jeremy, R.W., Hackworthy, R.A., Bautovich, G., Hutton, B.F., Harris, P.J. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  42. Nutritional assessment with bioelectrical impedance analysis in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Chertow, G.M., Lowrie, E.G., Wilmore, D.W., Gonzalez, J., Lew, N.L., Ling, J., Leboff, M.S., Gottlieb, M.N., Huang, W., Zebrowski, B. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  43. Reassessment of growth hormone status is required at final height in children treated with growth hormone replacement after radiation therapy. Gleeson, H.K., Gattamaneni, H.R., Smethurst, L., Brennan, B.M., Shalet, S.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  44. Prostate cancer radiosensitization in vivo with adenovirus-mediated p53 gene therapy. Cowen, D., Salem, N., Ashoori, F., Meyn, R., Meistrich, M.L., Roth, J.A., Pollack, A. Clin. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
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