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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Post-translational modifications regulate matrix Gla protein function: importance for inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification.

BACKGROUND: Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a small vitamin K-dependent protein containing five gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues that are believed to be important in binding Ca(2+), calcium crystals and bone morphogenetic protein. In addition, MGP contains phosphorylated serine residues that may further regulate its activity. In vivo, MGP has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of vascular calcification; however, the precise molecular mechanism underlying the function of MGP is not yet fully understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the effects of MGP in human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) monolayers that undergo calcification after exposure to an increase in Ca(2+) concentration. Increased calcium salt deposition was found in cells treated with the vitamin K antagonist warfarin as compared to controls, whereas cells treated with vitamin K(1) showed decreased calcification as compared to controls. With conformation-specific antibodies, it was confirmed that warfarin treatment of VSMCs resulted in uncarboxylated (Gla-deficient) MGP. To specifically test the effects of MGP on VSMC calcification, we used full-length synthetic MGP and MGP-derived peptides representing various domains in MGP. Full length MGP, the gamma-carboxylated motif (Gla) (amino acids 35-54) and the phosphorylated serine motif (amino acids 3-15) inhibited calcification. Furthermore, we showed that the peptides were not taken up by VSMCs but bound to the cell surface and to vesicle-like structures. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that both gamma-glutamyl carboxylation and serine phosphorylation of MGP contribute to its function as a calcification inhibitor and that MGP may inhibit calcification via binding to VSMC-derived vesicles.[1]


  1. Post-translational modifications regulate matrix Gla protein function: importance for inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification. Schurgers, L.J., Spronk, H.M., Skepper, J.N., Hackeng, T.M., Shanahan, C.M., Vermeer, C., Weissberg, P.L., Proudfoot, D. J. Thromb. Haemost. (2007) [Pubmed]
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