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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Gene expression analysis proposes alternative pathways for the mechanism by which celecoxib selectively inhibits the growth of transformed but not normal enterocytes.

PURPOSE: Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (celecoxib, Pfizer) is a promising chemopreventive agent, yet its long-term use may be limited due to increased cardiovascular toxicity. This study was aimed to identify genes and pathways involved in colorectal tumorigenesis and affected by celecoxib. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Normal rat enterocytes (IEC18 cells) and their Ras-transformed derivatives (R1) were exposed for 72 h or over 6 months to celecoxib and analyzed for gene expression pattern using Genechip (RG-U34). Cluster and pathway analyses were done using GeneSpring software and Gene Ontology database. Cyclin D1 was overexpressed in IEC18 cells using stable transfection; cell cycle and prostaglandin synthesis were assessed. RESULTS: Five hundred thirty-eight genes were differentially expressed after transformation, and 70 and 126 genes, respectively, were affected by short and long treatments with celecoxib. Clusters of expression showed different expression in the transformed cells that revert to normal after treatment; they included Ras/Erk/Ral-B, Jagged2/Notch, calcineurin, lysyl-oxidase, etc. Cyclin D1 is up-regulated under the Ras pathway and is down-regulated by celecoxib. Thus, we showed that cyclin D1-transformed cells are resistant to inhibition by celecoxib. Celecoxib was also shown to work via cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition in transformed cells. CONCLUSIONS: Celecoxib selectively affects transformed and not normal enterocytes by targeting genes and pathways that are involved in the transformation. Thus, an alternative mechanism is proposed for the cancer-preventive role of celecoxib other than the classic mechanism of inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis, stressing mainly the role of cyclin D1. These data may help in the development of safer and more effective preventive drugs.[1]


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