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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Research Design

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Disease relevance of Research Design

  • Using this experimental design, we demonstrate that VA RNAI stimulates the translation of both early and late adenovirus mRNAs [1].
  • Furthermore, the presence of clusters of p53-positive nuclei delineates a group of patients with poor prognosis not identified by traditional scoring methods and supports the hypothesis that p53 dysfunction within PCa may exist in foci of tumor cells that are clonally expanded in metastases [2].
  • CONCLUSION: DXR with the integrated Radiogrammetry Kit program could be a promising, widely available diagnostic tool for supplementing the different RA scoring methods with quantitative data, thus allowing an earlier and improved diagnosis of RA and more precision in determining disease progression [3].
  • Patients with untreated hypertension have been shown to be resistant to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and are more hyperinsulinemic and hypertriglyceridemic than matched groups of patients with normal blood pressure [4].
  • The clinical outcome of 52 consecutive patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who developed paroxysmal (less than 1 week) or established (greater than or equal to 1 week) atrial fibrillation between 1960 and 1985 was examined retrospectively and compared with that of a matched group of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and sinus rhythm [5].

Psychiatry related information on Research Design


High impact information on Research Design


Chemical compound and disease context of Research Design


Biological context of Research Design


Anatomical context of Research Design

  • These experimental designs tested whether atrial myocyte ANP-RB colocalizes at the plasmalemma and elsewhere in the cell with the muscle-specific isoform of the caveolar coating protein caveolin-3, and with a fraction of cellular ANP [26].
  • To examine whether pulsed Doppler left ventricular filling indices can reliably detect myocardial ischaemia in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing dobutamine stress echocardiography we studied three groups matched for age and global indices of left ventricular function [27].
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We reviewed the charts of all islet cell antibody (ICA) negative patients diagnosed with NIDDM at Children's Hospital Medical Center (CHMC) between 1982 and 1995 [28].
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--Unselected cases with IDDM, who were 6-29 yr of age, were identified at diagnosis from a large, geographically defined area of southern Wisconsin. Peripheral nerve conduction was measured on a sample from this cohort [29].
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Mononuclear cells were isolated from healthy volunteers (n = 11) and patients with NIDDM (n = 14) and incubated with ECV 304 cells, a human umbilical endothelial cell-derived transformed cell line [30].

Associations of Research Design with chemical compounds

  • METHODS: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled comparison of 2 fixed oral dosages of cortisol (40 mg/d and 160 mg/d), given for 4 days to matched groups of healthy subjects (n=47) [31].
  • Structured diagnostic interviews were done within an experimental design intended to maximize differentiation of enduring symptoms from symptoms linked to binges of cocaine use [32].
  • From a survey of 24-hour caffeine intake of 798 grade-school children (mean age, 10.3 years), 19 "high consumers" (reported intake of 500 mg/day or more) and a matched group of 19 "low consumers" were recruited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled, caffeine challenge study [33].
  • The test was made by an experimental design that uses a period of exposure of the eggs to 2-mercaptoethanol [34].
  • In a blinded experimental design, clinical signs of EAE developed within 17 days of immunization with human white matter in two placebo-treated animals but in none of three monkeys that received rolipram (10 mg/kg s.c. every other day) beginning 1 week after immunization [35].

Gene context of Research Design

  • In addition to commonly used methods we introduce a new experimental design featuring ISG15-UBP43 fusion self-processing [36].
  • We examined this putative association in 41 children with severe ADHD and 56 healthy controls who were group matched for ethnicity and sex [37].
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--Forty-eight IDDM patients and 59 nondiabetic unrelated control subjects were recruited from the population in Taiwan. HLA-DQB1 exon 2 was enzymatically amplified by polymerase chain reaction [38].
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Serum EGFR and HER2 levels were monitored in blood samples taken within 1 week of starting Gefitinib at day 28 and at every computed tomography scan evaluation [39].
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We sequenced the kinase domain of EGFR and exon 20 of ERBB2 in tumor specimens from eight responsive patients [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Research Design

  • METHODS: Brain activation was monitored by positron emission tomography in matched groups of six dyslexic adults and six control adults as they carried out either a prelearned sequence or learned a novel sequence of finger movements [41].
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Ten consecutive USPC specimens were assessed by immunohistochemistry for the intensity of expression of HER-2/neu [42].
  • We have analyzed the performance of the biographer low-glucose alarm relative to hypoglycemia as defined by blood glucose < or = 3.9 mmol/l. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The analysis was based on 1,091 biographer uses from four clinical trials. which generated 14,487 paired (biographer and blood glucose) readings [43].
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using PCR and primers that amplify MMTV-like gene sequences, we tested cancerous and benign breast tissue from Caucasian-Australian, Vietnamese-Australian, and Vietnamese women [44].
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study among 208 normoglycemic individuals (fasting glucose < or = 6.4 mmol/l and no history of diabetes) who had carotid initial-medial thickening (case subjects) and 208 normoglycemic control subjects individually matched for age, sex, race, field center, and date of exam [45].


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  2. Prognostic significance of p53 nuclear accumulation in localized prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy. Quinn, D.I., Henshall, S.M., Head, D.R., Golovsky, D., Wilson, J.D., Brenner, P.C., Turner, J.J., Delprado, W., Finlayson, J.F., Stricker, P.D., Grygiel, J.J., Sutherland, R.L. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Digital X-ray radiogrammetry combined with semiautomated analysis of joint space widths as a new diagnostic approach in rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Böttcher, J., Pfeil, A., Rosholm, A., Petrovitch, A., Seidl, B.E., Malich, A., Schäfer, M.L., Kramer, A., Mentzel, H.J., Lehmann, G., Hein, G., Kaiser, W.A. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia in the etiology and clinical course of hypertension. Reaven, G.M. Am. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Atrial fibrillation in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a longitudinal study. Robinson, K., Frenneaux, M.P., Stockins, B., Karatasakis, G., Poloniecki, J.D., McKenna, W.J. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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  10. Cutaneous sensory thresholds from skin overlying masseter and forearm in MPD patients and controls. Davidson, R.M., Gale, E.N. J. Dent. Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
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  12. A learning deficit related to age and beta-amyloid plaques in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Chen, G., Chen, K.S., Knox, J., Inglis, J., Bernard, A., Martin, S.J., Justice, A., McConlogue, L., Games, D., Freedman, S.B., Morris, R.G. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Nitric oxide moves myoglobin centre stage. Brunori, M. Trends Biochem. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Multiple dietary factors in the enhancement of dimethylhydrazine carcinogenesis: main effect of indole-3-carbinol. Pence, B.C., Buddingh, F., Yang, S.P. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Protoporphyrin hepatopathy. Effects of cholic acid ingestion in murine griseofulvin-induced protoporphyria. Poh-Fitzpatrick, M.B., Sklar, J.A., Goldsman, C., Lefkowitch, J.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Risk factors for cervical atherosclerosis in patients with transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic stroke. Palomäki, H., Kaste, M., Raininko, R., Salonen, O., Juvela, S., Sarna, S. Stroke (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Combination insulin-sulfonylurea therapy. Lebovitz, H.E., Pasmantier, R. Diabetes Care (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Mechanisms of cell sensitization to alpha radioimmunotherapy by doxorubicin or paclitaxel in multiple myeloma cell lines. Supiot, S., Gouard, S., Charrier, J., Apostolidis, C., Chatal, J.F., Barbet, J., Davodeau, F., Cherel, M. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Dose escalation study of intravenous estramustine phosphate in combination with Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in patients with advanced prostate cancer. Kelly, W.K., Zhu, A.X., Scher, H., Curley, T., Fallon, M., Slovin, S., Schwartz, L., Larson, S., Tong, W., Hartley-Asp, B., Pellizzoni, C., Rocchetti, M. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the polyamine synthesis inhibitor SAM486A in combination with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin in metastatic colorectal cancer. van Zuylen, L., Bridgewater, J., Sparreboom, A., Eskens, F.A., de Bruijn, P., Sklenar, I., Planting, A.S., Choi, L., Bootle, D., Mueller, C., Ledermann, J.A., Verweij, J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Decreased memory performance in healthy humans induced by stress-level cortisol treatment. Newcomer, J.W., Selke, G., Melson, A.K., Hershey, T., Craft, S., Richards, K., Alderson, A.L. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Oesophageal tone in patients with achalasia. González, M., Mearin, F., Vasconez, C., Armengol, J.R., Malagelada, J.R. Gut (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Dobutamine and hydralazine: comparative influences of positive inotropy and vasodilation on coronary blood flow and myocardial energetics in nonischemic congestive heart failure. Magorien, R.D., Unverferth, D.V., Brown, G.P., Leier, C.V. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Anosmin-1 underlying the X chromosome-linked Kallmann syndrome is an adhesion molecule that can modulate neurite growth in a cell-type specific manner. Soussi-Yanicostas, N., Faivre-Sarrailh, C., Hardelin, J.P., Levilliers, J., Rougon, G., Petit, C. J. Cell. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Screening for MODY mutations, GAD antibodies, and type 1 diabetes--associated HLA genotypes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Weng, J., Ekelund, M., Lehto, M., Li, H., Ekberg, G., Frid, A., Aberg, A., Groop, L.C., Berntorp, K. Diabetes Care (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Type B atrial natriuretic peptide receptor in cardiac myocyte caveolae. Doyle, D.D., Ambler, S.K., Upshaw-Earley, J., Bastawrous, A., Goings, G.E., Page, E. Circ. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Influence of haemodynamics and myocardial ischaemia on Doppler transmitral flow in patients undergoing dobutamine echocardiography. Mazeika, P.K., Nadazdin, A., Oakley, C.M. Eur. Heart J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Diabetic ketoacidosis among obese African-American adolescents with NIDDM. Pinhas-Hamiel, O., Dolan, L.M., Zeitler, P.S. Diabetes Care (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Glycemic control and peripheral nerve conduction in children and young adults after 5-6 mo of IDDM. Wisconsin Diabetes Registry. Allen, C., Duck, S.C., Sufit, R.L., Swick, H.M., D'Alessio, D.J. Diabetes Care (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Adherence of mononuclear cells to endothelium in vitro is increased in patients with NIDDM. Carantoni, M., Abbasi, F., Chu, L., Chen, Y.D., Reaven, G.M., Tsao, P.S., Varasteh, B., Cooke, J.P. Diabetes Care (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Dose-dependent cortisol-induced increases in plasma leptin concentration in healthy humans. Newcomer, J.W., Selke, G., Melson, A.K., Gross, J., Vogler, G.P., Dagogo-Jack, S. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Abstinence symptomatology and psychiatric diagnosis in cocaine abusers. Clinical observations. Gawin, F.H., Kleber, H.D. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Behavioral effects of caffeine in children. Relationship between dietary choice and effects of caffeine challenge. Rapoport, J.L., Berg, C.J., Ismond, D.R., Zahn, T.P., Neims, A. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1984) [Pubmed]
  34. Centrosome detection in sea urchin eggs with a monoclonal antibody against Drosophila intermediate filament proteins: characterization of stages of the division cycle of centrosomes. Schatten, H., Walter, M., Mazia, D., Biessmann, H., Paweletz, N., Coffe, G., Schatten, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  35. Prevention of autoimmune demyelination in non-human primates by a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Genain, C.P., Roberts, T., Davis, R.L., Nguyen, M.H., Uccelli, A., Faulds, D., Li, Y., Hedgpeth, J., Hauser, S.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. UBP43 (USP18) specifically removes ISG15 from conjugated proteins. Malakhov, M.P., Malakhova, O.A., Kim, K.I., Ritchie, K.J., Zhang, D.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Lack of an association between a dopamine-4 receptor polymorphism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: genetic and brain morphometric analyses. Castellanos, F.X., Lau, E., Tayebi, N., Lee, P., Long, R.E., Giedd, J.N., Sharp, W., Marsh, W.L., Walter, J.M., Hamburger, S.D., Ginns, E.I., Rapoport, J.L., Sidransky, E. Mol. Psychiatry (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. HLA-DQB1 codon 57 and IDDM in Chinese living in Taiwan. Chuang, L.M., Jou, T.S., Hu, C.Y., Wu, H.P., Tsai, W.Y., Lee, J.S., Hsieh, R.P., Chen, K.H., Tai, T.Y., Lin, B.J. Diabetes Care (1994) [Pubmed]
  39. Effects of gefitinib on serum epidermal growth factor receptor and HER2 in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Gregorc, V., Ceresoli, G.L., Floriani, I., Spreafico, A., Bencardino, K.B., Ludovini, V., Pistola, L., Mihaylova, Z., Tofanetti, F.R., Ferraldeschi, M., Torri, V., Cappuzzo, F., Crinò, L., Tonato, M., Villa, E. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  40. Response of some head and neck cancers to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be linked to mutation of ERBB2 rather than EGFR. Cohen, E.E., Lingen, M.W., Martin, L.E., Harris, P.L., Brannigan, B.W., Haserlat, S.M., Okimoto, R.A., Sgroi, D.C., Dahiya, S., Muir, B., Clark, J.R., Rocco, J.W., Vokes, E.E., Haber, D.A., Bell, D.W. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  41. Association of abnormal cerebellar activation with motor learning difficulties in dyslexic adults. Nicolson, R.I., Fawcett, A.J., Berry, E.L., Jenkins, I.H., Dean, P., Brooks, D.J. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  42. Overexpression of HER-2/neu in uterine serous papillary cancer. Santin, A.D., Bellone, S., Gokden, M., Palmieri, M., Dunn, D., Agha, J., Roman, J.J., Hutchins, L., Pecorelli, S., O'Brien, T., Cannon, M.J., Parham, G.P. Clin. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  43. Detection of hypoglycemia with the GlucoWatch biographer. Pitzer, K.R., Desai, S., Dunn, T., Edelman, S., Jayalakshmi, Y., Kennedy, J., Tamada, J.A., Potts, R.O. Diabetes Care (2001) [Pubmed]
  44. Mouse mammary tumor virus-like gene sequences in breast tumors of Australian and Vietnamese women. Ford, C.E., Tran, D., Deng, Y., Ta, V.T., Rawlinson, W.D., Lawson, J.S. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  45. Glycosylated hemoglobin level and carotid intimal-medial thickening in nondiabetic individuals. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Vitelli, L.L., Shahar, E., Heiss, G., McGovern, P.G., Brancati, F.L., Eckfeldt, J.H., Folsom, A.R. Diabetes Care (1997) [Pubmed]
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