The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Membrane vesicle formation due to acquired mitoxantrone resistance in human gastric carcinoma cell line EPG85-257.

A newly established gastric carcinoma cell line (EPG85-257P) exhibited a high sensitivity to mitoxantrone (DHAD) as determined by a monolayer proliferation assay. The concentration to inhibit cell growth to 50% of controls (IC50) was 0.0022 micrograms/ml culture medium. The cells were continuously incubated for more than 4 months in the presence of stepwise increased concentrations of DHAD, and the IC50 was increased to 0.41 micrograms/ml, i.e., 186.4-fold. This resistant variant was named EPG85-257RNOV. The EPG85-257RNOV cells became cross-resistant to Adriamycin with enhanced IC50 by 10.5-fold and to daunomycin with enhanced IC50 by 3.9-fold. No distinct resistance was observed to vinblastine, vincristine, and colchicine. Verapamil (10(-6), 4 X 10(-6) and 10(-5) M) and cyclosporin A (10(-6), 3 X 10(-6) and 10(-5) M) did not reverse DHAD resistance. As shown by immunocytochemistry (monoclonal antibodies: C219 and JSB-1) and Northern blot analysis, DHAD resistance was not associated with the appearance of the multidrug resistance (MDR)-associated (Mr 170,000) P-glycoprotein or the overexpression of P-glycoprotein mRNA. The data indicate a chemoresistance pattern unlike typical MDR (often called "atypical" MDR). The phenotypes of parent and resistant EPG85-257 cells were compared using interference contrast microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunocytochemistry. After DHAD application the following structural characteristics were found to be associated with emergence of resistance: (a) intensive formation of surface vesicles in the resistant variant. Such vesicles were almost absent in sensitive cells; (b) the vesicles contained the selecting DHAD which was visualized by its blue color; and (c) in electron microscopy the vesicles were formed by an inner and an outer double membrane, presumably derived from the plasmalemma. These observations suggest a complex cellular mechanism responsible for DHAD resistance which includes formation of membrane vesicles, vesicular drug binding, and drug compartmentalization.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities