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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Characterization of the inhibitory effects of retinoids on the in vitro growth of two malignant murine melanomas.

The in vitro proliferation of murine melanoma cell lines S91 and B16 was inhibited by retinoic acid and retinyl acetate. The inhibitory effects were dependent on retinoid concentration and increased from 55 and 30% at 10(-9) M retinoic acid to 85 and 82% at 10(-5) M retinoic acid for S91 and B16 melanoma cells, respectively. S91 melanoma cells were more sensitive than B16 melanoma cells to inhibition by either retinoid, and both cell lines were more sensitive to retinoic acid than to retinyl acetate. When exposed to 10(-5) M retinoic acid, the two cell types grew at the same rate as did control cells for 48 hours, whereupon the growth rates of retinoid-treated cells decreased. After 6 days, the number of cells in control cultures increased 140 times (S91 melanoma cells) and 265 times (B16 melanoma cells), whereas retinoic acid-treated cells increased only 14 times (S91 melanoma cells) and 40 times (B16 melanoma cells). The degree of growth inhibition by retinoic acid was not dependent on initial cell density. Cortisone and hydrocortisone failed to prevent or reduce the inhibitory effect of retinoic acid; the release of lysosomal acid phosphatase was not increased and the intracellular level of 3',5'-cyclic AMP in cells grown for 5 days in the presence of 10(-5) M retinoic acid was not elevated. Viability of S91 and B16 cells after 8 days' exposure to 10(-5) M retinoic acid was similar to that in control cultures. The reduced growth rate of retinoic acid-treated cells reversed to the control rate 48-72 hours after removal of retinoic acid from the growth medium.[1]


  1. Characterization of the inhibitory effects of retinoids on the in vitro growth of two malignant murine melanomas. Lotan, R., Giotta, G., Nork, E., Nicolson, G.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
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