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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Fungal toxins bind to the URF13 protein in maize mitochondria and Escherichia coli.

Expression of the maize mitochondrial T-urf13 gene results in a sensitivity to a family of fungal pathotoxins and to methomyl, a structurally unrelated systemic insecticide. Similar effects of pathotoxins and methomyl are observed when T-urf13 is cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. An interaction between these compounds and the membrane-bound URF13 protein permeabilizes the inner mitochondrial and bacterial plasma membranes. To understand the toxin-URF13 effects, we have investigated whether toxin specifically binds to the URF13 protein. Our studies indicate that toxin binds to the URF13 protein in maize mitochondria and in E. coli expressing URF13. Binding analysis in E. coli reveals cooperative toxin binding. A low level of specific toxin binding is also demonstrated in cms-T and cms-T-restored mitochondria; however, binding does not appear to be cooperative in maize mitochondria. Competition and displacement studies in E. coli demonstrate that toxin binding is reversible and that the toxins and methomyl compete for the same, or for overlapping, binding sites. Two toxin-insensitive URF13 mutants display a diminished capability to bind toxin in E. coli, which identifies residues of URF13 important in toxin binding. A third toxin-insensitive URF13 mutant shows considerable toxin binding in E. coli, demonstrating that toxin binding can occur without causing membrane permeabilization. Our results indicate that toxin-mediated membrane permeabilization only occurs when toxin or methomyl is bound to URF13.[1]


  1. Fungal toxins bind to the URF13 protein in maize mitochondria and Escherichia coli. Braun, C.J., Siedow, J.N., Levings, C.S. Plant Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
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