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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mechanistic studies on trans-2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzoate dehydrogenase (Ent A) in the biosynthesis of the iron chelator enterobactin.

The enzyme 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzoate dehydrogenase (2,3-diDHB dehydrogenase, hereafter Ent A), the product of the enterobactin biosynthetic gene entA, catalyzes the NAD(+)-dependent oxidation of the dihydroaromatic substrate 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzoate (2,3-diDHB) to the aromatic catecholic product 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate (2,3-DHB). The catechol 2,3-DHB is one of the key siderophore units of enterobactin, a potent iron chelator secreted by Escherichia coli. To probe the reaction mechanism of this oxidation, a variety of 2,3-diDHB analogues were synthesized and tested as substrates. Specifically, we set out to elucidate both the regio- and stereospecificity of alcohol oxidation as well as the stereochemistry of NAD+ reduction. Of those analogues tested, only those with a C3-hydroxyl group (but not a C2-hydroxyl group) were oxidized to the corresponding ketone products. Reversibility of the Ent A catalyzed reaction was demonstrated with the corresponding NADH-dependent reduction of 3-ketocyclohexane- and cyclohexene-1-carboxylates but not the 2-keto compounds. These results establish that Ent A functions as an alcohol dehydrogenase to specifically oxidize the C3-hydroxyl group of 2,3-diDHB to produce the corresponding 2-hydroxy-3-oxo-4,6-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate (Scheme II) as a transient species that undergoes rapid aromatization to give 2,3-DHB. Stereospecificity of the C3 allylic alcohol group oxidation was confirmed to be 3R in a 1R,3R dihydro substrate, 3, and hydride transfer occurs to the si face of enzyme-bound NAD+.[1]


  1. Mechanistic studies on trans-2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzoate dehydrogenase (Ent A) in the biosynthesis of the iron chelator enterobactin. Sakaitani, M., Rusnak, F., Quinn, N.R., Tu, C., Frigo, T.B., Berchtold, G.A., Walsh, C.T. Biochemistry (1990) [Pubmed]
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