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Chemical Compound Review

nadide     [[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(5- aminocarbonylpyridin...

Synonyms: Endopride, beta-NAD, NAD-oxidized, Codehydrase I, DPN, ...
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Disease relevance of nadide

  • Another minor contribution to the symptomatology of GLUT-1 may be impaired transport of an oxidised form of vitamin C. Treatment with anti-epileptic drugs may be needed, and the ketogenic diet may reduce symptoms, as ketosis can provide an alternative source of fuel for the brain [1].
  • Cytochrome c" from Methylophilus methylotrophus is an unusual monohaem protein that undergoes a major redox-linked spin-state transition: one of the two axial histidines bound to the iron in the oxidised form is detached upon reduction and a proton is taken up [2].

High impact information on nadide


Biological context of nadide

  • Sulfur in its reduced form (-II) is an essential nutrient for growth and development, but is mainly available to plants in its oxidised form as sulfate [8].
  • Similarly, osmotic stress resulted in a higher ratio of the reduced to the oxidised form of these thiols and in greater activity of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione reductase in the tolerant genotypes compared to the sensitive ones [9].
  • Besides, the oxidised form always decreased with sea water while the reduced form decreased in shoots and increased in roots [10].
  • When the two electron reduced, catalytically competent active site of the enzyme is generated from the oxidised form in 'rapid', non-rate limiting steps of the catalytic cycle, the voltammetric behaviour of NarGH cannot be reproduced [11].
  • Phosphoribulokinase-3, isolated under the most oxidising conditions and exhibiting unusual kinetics, has properties consistent with those expected of an oxidised form of the enzyme in which Cys-16 and Cys-55 are completely oxidised to form a disulfide bond in each subunit [12].

Anatomical context of nadide

  • Although the reduced cysteinylglycine content of eggs did not change among experimental groups, the oxidised form of cysteinylglycine increased (p < 0.025) between sperm decondensation (6.9 +/- 1.5 nmol/egg in unfertilized oocytes and 10.1 +/- 2.1 nmol/egg in DSH eggs) and pronuclear formation (40.5 +/- 11.5 nmol/egg in PN eggs) [13].

Associations of nadide with other chemical compounds

  • Alamar Blue incorporates a redox indicator which changes colour from blue (oxidised form) to magenta (reduced form) in response to metabolic activity [14].
  • However, infusion-induced alterations on glutathione homeostasis were noticed, as it was observed by the increase in glutathione oxidised form (GSSG) and depletion in total glutathione levels, which indicates that plant-derived antioxidant extracts may not be considered a generalised way of treating pro-oxidant-related diseases [15].
  • Proof of concept is shown for the electrochemical adaptation of the Gibbs reaction, where reaction of the oxidised form of PAP with substituted phenols provides an indirect methodology for the analytical detection of these compounds [16].

Gene context of nadide

  • The structure of C. reinhardtii thioredoxin h was solved in its oxidised form, and the ensemble of 23 converged structures superpose to the geometric average structure with an atomic rmsd of 0.080 nm +/- 0.016 for the (N, C(alpha), C) backbone atoms of residues 4-110 [17].
  • In its oxidised form the ferredoxin had absorption maxima at 277, (281), 323, 420 and 462 nm [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of nadide


  1. Glucose transporter type1 (GLUT-1) deficiency. Gordon, N., Newton, R.W. Brain Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Cloning and sequence analysis of the gene encoding Methylophilus methylotrophus cytochrome c", a unique protein with a perpendicular orientation of the histidinyl ligands. Price, N.J., Vijgenboom, E., Ribeiro, G., Costa, J.V., Canters, G.W., Santos, H. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Crystal structure of reduced bovine erythrocyte superoxide dismutase at 1.9 A resolution. Rypniewski, W.R., Mangani, S., Bruni, B., Orioli, P.L., Casati, M., Wilson, K.S. J. Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Stimulation of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase by mercuric ions. Ashton, A.R., Siegel, G.M. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Mass spectrometric evidence for different complexes of peptides and proteins with arsenic(III), arsenic(V), copper(II), and zinc(II) species. Schmidt, A.C., Koppelt, J., Neustadt, M., Otto, M. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. In vitro evaluation of the inflammatory activity of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. Bosetti, M., Zanardi, L., Bracco, P., Costa, L., Cannas, M. Biomaterials (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Inhibitory effect of the neuroprotective agent idebenone on arachidonic acid metabolism in astrocytes. Civenni, G., Bezzi, P., Trotti, D., Volterra, A., Racagni, G. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Sulfur nutrition of deciduous trees. Herschbach, C., Rennenberg, H. Naturwissenschaften (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of osmotic stress on glutathione and hydroxymethylglutathione accumulation in wheat. Kocsy, G., Szalai, G., Galiba, G. J. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. The role of lipoic acid in the regulation of the redox status of wheat irrigated with 20% sea water. D'Amico, M.L., Navari-Izzo, F., Sgherri, C., Izzo, R. Plant Physiol. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Using direct electrochemistry to probe rate limiting events during nitrate reductase turnover. Anderson, L.J., Richardson, D.J., Butt, J.N. Faraday Discuss. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Isolation of multiple dimeric forms of phosphoribulokinase from an alga and a higher plant. Clasper, S., Chelvarajan, R.E., Easterby, J.S., Powls, R. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Changes in intracellular content of glutathione and thiols associated with gamma-glutamyl cycle during sperm penetration and pronuclear formation in rat oocytes. Funahashi, H., Bandoh, N., Nakahira, S., Oh, S.H., Tsuboi, S. Zygote (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. The effect of human organ preservation and albumin flush solution on in vitro cell metabolic activity. Riga, A.T., Fuller, B.J., Davidson, B.R. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Protective activity of Hypericum androsaemum infusion against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage in isolated rat hepatocytes. Valentão, P., Carvalho, M., Fernandes, E., Carvalho, F., Andrade, P.B., Seabra, R.M., de Lourdes Bastos, M. Journal of ethnopharmacology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Indirect detection of substituted phenols and cannabis based on the electrochemical adaptation of the Gibbs reaction. Lowe, E.R., Banks, C.E., Compton, R.G. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. NMR solution structure of an oxidised thioredoxin h from the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mittard, V., Blackledge, M.J., Stein, M., Jacquot, J.P., Marion, D., Lancelin, J.M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Ferredoxin from a red alga, Porphyra umbilicalis. Andrew, P.W., Rogers, L.J., Boulter, D., Haslett, B.G. Eur. J. Biochem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. Glutathione disulphide as a marker of reperfusion injury in ischaemic skin flaps. Hirigoyen, M.B., Manasia, A., Zhang, W., Greenstein, A.S., Lu, Y., Benjamin, E., Urken, M.L., Weinberg, H. British journal of plastic surgery. (1995) [Pubmed]
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