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Chemical Compound Review

AC1L18UY     4-[2-[2-[3-acetamido-2-[[[5- (2,4...

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Disease relevance of C3

  • I(soc) was potentiated by microinjection of Clostridium C3 transferase, which inhibits Rho GTPase, whereas I(soc) was inhibited by expression of wild-type or constitutively active Rho [1].
  • In the 11th patient, renal biopsy revealed an increase in mesangial matrix and cells, with deposition of IgG and C3 consistent with a mild immune-complex glomerulonephritis, and severe interstitial nephritis [2].
  • Renal biopsy in all patients revealed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, characterized by the deposition of IgG, IgM, and C3 in glomeruli [3].
  • The response to steroids suggests the efficacy of corticosteroid therapy in alleviating hemolysis due to macrophage recognition of erythrocytes coated with IgM and C3 [4].
  • Histologic, electron microscopical and immunohistochemical studies revealed an early membranous glomerulonephritis characterized by the presence of subepithelial basement-membrane deposits containing IgG and C3 [5].

Psychiatry related information on C3


High impact information on C3

  • CD21 binds the C3d fragment of activated C3 that becomes covalently attached to targets of complement activation, and CD19 co-stimulates signaling through the antigen receptor, membrane immunoglobulin [11].
  • Covalent attachment of activated complement C3 (C3d) to antigen links innate and adaptive immunity by targeting antigen to follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and B cells via specific receptors CD21 and CD35 [12].
  • There were marked reductions in proteolysis of serum C3, deposition of C3 on organisms within SIGN-R1(+) spleen macrophages, and formation of C3 ligands [13].
  • A pivotal step in the complement pathway is the assembly of a C3 convertase, which digests the C3 complement component to form microbial binding C3 fragments recognized by leukocytes [13].
  • Surprisingly, conditional SIGN-R1 knockout mice developed deficits in C3 catabolism when given S. pneumoniae or its capsular polysaccharide intravenously [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of C3

  • The increased jejunal secretion of C4, but not C3 or factor B, paralleled the clinical activity of Crohn's disease [14].
  • However, of the 21 patients with partial lipodystrophy, 17 had low serum C3, with normal C4 and C2, concentrations, accompanied in 14 by a serum C3 splitting factor indistinguishable from nephritic factor, suggesting activation of the alternative pathway [15].
  • Levels of properdin, factor B and C3, C5, C6, and C9 were significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased in patients with shock in comparison with those with uncomplicated bacteremia [16].
  • The 17 patients receiving heparin in whom thrombocytopenia did not develop had normal levels of platelet-associated IgG and C3 [17].
  • We also report that solubilized gC-2, the genetically related glycoprotein specified by HSV-2, binds to iC3-Sepharose. mAb specific for gC-1 or gC-2 and mutant viral strains were used to identify the C3-binding glycoproteins [18].

Biological context of C3

  • Introducing a second mutation in the gene encoding complement factor B, which prevents C3 turnover in vivo, obviates the phenotype of Cfh(-/-) mice [19].
  • The activation of C3 to C3b is promoted by zymosan or by antibody-coated erythrocytes, demonstrating participation in both the classical and alternative complement pathways [20].
  • This pathway is triggered by the hydrolysis of C3, resulting in the formation of C3 convertase [19].
  • In contrast, wild-type macronuclear rDNA of the C3 strain used to obtain the mutant outreplicated B strain rDNA in B/C3 heterozygote macronuclei [21].
  • Sequence differences were found between wild-type B and C3 and mutant C3 rDNAs in the replication origin region, changing an upstream repeat of a highly conserved rRNA promoter element [21].

Anatomical context of C3

  • One type of clone that can be induced by MGI to form Fc and C3 receptors and differentiate to mature macrophages and granulocytes (MGI+D+) was also induced by MGI to synthesize and secrete lysozyme [22].
  • Cells bearing the C3 receptor constituted a distinct minority of synovial lymphocytes in frozen-tissue sections, and were found in follicle-like accumulations [23].
  • The capacity of peripheral blood monocytes to increase the osmotic fragility of C3-coated erythrocytes suggests that macrophage interaction with C3-coated erythrocytes explains the observed in vivo spherocytosis [4].
  • C3 component of complement secreted by established cell lines [20].
  • The kidney revealed linear staining of tubular basement membranes with antiserums specific for human IgG and C3; the membranes also showed fixation of heterologous complement [24].

Associations of C3 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of C3

  • CR2 binds fragments of C3 that are covalently attached to glycoconjugates [30].
  • A key step in the elimination of pathogens from the body is the covalent binding of complement proteins C3 and C4 to their surfaces [31].
  • Complement activation at the fetomaternal interface caused the fetal loss because breeding to C3-/- mice rescued Crry-/- mice from lethality [32].
  • Furthermore, microinjection of dominant negative forms of Rac and Cdc42 or of the Rho inhibitor C3 transferase blocked serum-induced DNA synthesis [33].
  • MASP-1, MAp19, and direct C3-cleaving activity are associated with smaller oligomers whereas MASP-3 is found together with MASP-2 on larger oligomers [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of C3


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  2. Associated focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Rao, T.K., Filippone, E.J., Nicastri, A.D., Landesman, S.H., Frank, E., Chen, C.K., Friedman, E.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis C virus infection. Johnson, R.J., Gretch, D.R., Yamabe, H., Hart, J., Bacchi, C.E., Hartwell, P., Couser, W.G., Corey, L., Wener, M.H., Alpers, C.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Low-titer cold-hemagglutinin disease. Mechanism of hemolysis and response to corticosteroids. Schreiber, A.D., Herskovitz, B.S., Goldwein, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
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  6. T15 D region germ line amino acid sequences distinguished by monoclonal anti-idiotope antibody. Nishinarita, S., Claflin, J.L., Lieberman, R. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Expression of polypeptide segments of the human complement component C3 in E. coli: genetic and immunological characterization of cDNA clones specific for the alpha-chain of C3. Ma, D., Sessler, M.J., Meyer, T.F., Schrod, L., Hänsch, G.M., Burger, R. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. A longitudinal study of anticardiolipin antibody levels and cognitive functioning in systemic lupus erythematosus. Menon, S., Jameson-Shortall, E., Newman, S.P., Hall-Craggs, M.R., Chinn, R., Isenberg, D.A. Arthritis Rheum. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Relationship of serum C3 to fasting insulin, risk factors and previous ischaemic events in middle-aged men. Muscari, A., Massarelli, G., Bastagli, L., Poggiopollini, G., Tomassetti, V., Drago, G., Martignani, C., Pacilli, P., Boni, P., Puddu, P. Eur. Heart J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum immunoglobulins and C3 in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Gálvez, S., Farcas, A., Monari, M. Neurology (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of B lymphocyte responses to foreign and self-antigens by the CD19/CD21 complex. Fearon, D.T., Carroll, M.C. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. The role of complement and complement receptors in induction and regulation of immunity. Carroll, M.C. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. A dominant complement fixation pathway for pneumococcal polysaccharides initiated by SIGN-R1 interacting with C1q. Kang, Y.S., Do, Y., Lee, H.K., Park, S.H., Cheong, C., Lynch, R.M., Loeffler, J.M., Steinman, R.M., Park, C.G. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Enhanced local production of complement components in the small intestines of patients with Crohn's disease. Ahrenstedt, O., Knutson, L., Nilsson, B., Nilsson-Ekdahl, K., Odlind, B., Hällgren, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. The complement abnormalities of lipodystrophy. Sissons, J.G., West, R.J., Fallows, J., Williams, D.G., Boucher, B.J., Amos, N., Peters, D.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Activation of the properdin pathway of complement in patients with gram-negative of bacteremia. Fearon, D.T., Ruddy, S., Schur, P.H., McCabe, W.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  17. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia. Cines, D.B., Kaywin, P., Bina, M., Tomaski, A., Schreiber, A.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. Herpes simplex virus glycoproteins gC-1 and gC-2 bind to the third component of complement and provide protection against complement-mediated neutralization of viral infectivity. McNearney, T.A., Odell, C., Holers, V.M., Spear, P.G., Atkinson, J.P. J. Exp. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Uncontrolled C3 activation causes membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in mice deficient in complement factor H. Pickering, M.C., Cook, H.T., Warren, J., Bygrave, A.E., Moss, J., Walport, M.J., Botto, M. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. C3 component of complement secreted by established cell lines. Senger, D.R., Hynes, R.O. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  21. Control of rDNA replication in Tetrahymena involves a cis-acting upstream repeat of a promoter element. Larson, D.D., Blackburn, E.H., Yaeger, P.C., Orias, E. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Control of lysozyme induction in the differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells. Krystosek, A., Sachs, L. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  23. Predominantly T-cell infiltrate in rheumatoid synovial membranes. Van Boxel, J.A., Paget, S.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  24. Interstitial nephritis with anti-tubular-basement-membrane antibody. Bergstein, J., Litman, N. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. Renal filtration and catabolism of complement protein D. Volanakis, J.E., Barnum, S.R., Giddens, M., Galla, J.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Androgen-regulated expression of a cloned rat prostatic c3 gene transfected into mouse mammary tumor cells. Page, M.J., Parker, M.G. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Characteristics of C4 photosynthesis in stems and petioles of C3 flowering plants. Hibberd, J.M., Quick, W.P. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Epithelial secretion of C3 promotes colonization of the upper urinary tract by Escherichia coli. Springall, T., Sheerin, N.S., Abe, K., Holers, V.M., Wan, H., Sacks, S.H. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Growth control of activated, synchronized murine B cells by the C3d fragment of human complement. Melchers, F., Erdei, A., Schulz, T., Dierich, M.P. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. The CD19/CR2/TAPA-1 complex of B lymphocytes: linking natural to acquired immunity. Fearon, D.T., Carter, R.H. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. The reaction mechanism of the internal thioester in the human complement component C4. Dodds, A.W., Ren, X.D., Willis, A.C., Law, S.K. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. A critical role for murine complement regulator crry in fetomaternal tolerance. Xu, C., Mao, D., Holers, V.M., Palanca, B., Cheng, A.M., Molina, H. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. An essential role for Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 GTPases in cell cycle progression through G1. Olson, M.F., Ashworth, A., Hall, A. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. MASP-3 and its association with distinct complexes of the mannan-binding lectin complement activation pathway. Dahl, M.R., Thiel, S., Matsushita, M., Fujita, T., Willis, A.C., Christensen, T., Vorup-Jensen, T., Jensenius, J.C. Immunity (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. A prospective clinical and immunologic analysis of patients with serum sickness. Lawley, T.J., Bielory, L., Gascon, P., Yancey, K.B., Young, N.S., Frank, M.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  36. Immune thrombocytopenia. Use of a Coombs antiglobulin test to detect IgG and C3 on platelets. Cines, D.B., Schreiber, A.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  37. Plasmapheresis therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. A controlled, double-blind, crossover trial. Dwosh, I.L., Giles, A.R., Ford, P.M., Pater, J.L., Anastassiades, T.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
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