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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Nuclear Receptor Signaling Inhibits HIV-1 Replication in Macrophages through Multiple trans-Repression Mechanisms.

Sexually transmitted pathogens activate HIV-1 replication and inflammatory gene expression in macrophages through engagement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Ligand-activated nuclear receptor (NR) transcription factors, including glucocorticoid receptor (GR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and liver X receptor (LXR), are potent inhibitors of TLR-induced inflammatory gene expression. We therefore hypothesized that ligand-activated NRs repress both basal and pathogen-enhanced HIV-1 replication in macrophages by directly repressing HIV-1 transcription and by ameliorating the local proinflammatory response to pathogens. We show that the TLR2 ligand PAM3CSK4 activated virus transcription in macrophages and that NR signaling repressed both basal and TLR-induced HIV-1 transcription. NR ligand treatment repressed HIV-1 expression when added concurrently with TLR ligands and in the presence of cycloheximide, demonstrating that they act independently of new cellular gene expression. We found that treatment with NR ligands inhibited the association of AP-1 and NF-κB subunits, as well as the coactivator CBP, with the long terminal repeat (LTR). We show for the first time that the nuclear corepressor NCoR is bound to HIV-1 LTR in unstimulated macrophages and is released from the LTR after TLR engagement. Treatment with PPARγ and LXR ligands, but not GR ligands, prevented this TLR-induced clearance of NCoR from the LTR. Our data demonstrate that both classical and nonclassical trans-repression mechanisms account for NR-mediated HIV-1 repression. Finally, NR ligand treatment inhibited the potent proinflammatory response induced by PAM3CSK4 that would otherwise activate HIV-1 expression in infected cells. Our findings provide a rationale for studying ligand-activated NRs as modulators of basal and inflammation-induced HIV-1 replication.[1]


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