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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Differential stimulation of phosphorylation of initiation factors eIF-4F, eIF-4B, eIF-3, and ribosomal protein S6 by insulin and phorbol esters.

Exposure of quiescent, serum-starved 3T3-L1 cells to insulin promotes phosphorylation of initiation factors eIF-4F, eIF-4B, and eIF-3 p120, as well as ribosomal protein S6. Phosphorylation of both the p25 and p220 subunits of eIF-4F is stimulated typically by 2.5-5-fold, with a 2-4-fold increase in phosphorylation of eIF-4B and eIF-3 p120. Optimal stimulation is observed by 10(-9) M insulin. A similar pattern of stimulation is seen upon treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with 1 x 10(-6) M phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping of p25, isolated from quiescent, insulin- or PMA-stimulated cells, results in a single tryptic phosphopeptide, indicating a single phosphorylation site identical to that obtained with protein kinase C. A more complex phosphopeptide map is observed with the p220 subunit. Following PMA-stimulation of 3T3-L1 cells, phosphopeptide mapping of p220 results in a pattern similar to that observed in vitro with Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Following insulin stimulation, mapping of p220 results in the appearance of novel peptides. Upon prolonged exposure to PMA, the cells are no longer responsive to this mitogen and no stimulation of phosphorylation of eIF-4F, eIF-4b, eIF-3 p120, or S6 via a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism is observed. Addition of insulin to these down-regulated cells leads to stimulation of phosphorylation of eIF-4F p220, ribosomal protein S6, and to a lesser extent, eIF-4B; little or no stimulation of phosphorylation of eIF-4F p25 and eIF-3 p120 is observed. Thus, eIF-4F p220, eIF-4B and ribosomal protein S6 are phosphorylated via PMA-dependent and insulin-dependent pathways, whereas phosphorylation of eIF-4F p25 and eIF-3 p120 is stimulated only upon activation of protein kinase C. Phosphopeptide maps of eIF-4F p220 and ribosomal protein S6 suggest that protease-activated kinase II is one of the protein kinases involved in the insulin-stimulated response in protein kinase C-depleted cells.[1]

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