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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Daytime wakefulness following a bedtime oral dose of zolpidem 20 mg, flunitrazepam 2 mg and placebo.

1. The effects of zolpidem 20 mg, flunitrazepam 2 mg and placebo, administered at bed time, were studied in 12 healthy young male volunteers. 2. The assessments included, at awakening, subjective ratings of overnight sleep, cognitive function, psychomotor performance (digit symbol substitution, choice reaction time, flicker fusion threshold), subjective ratings of alertness, and plasma assay of residual drug concentration. Daytime sleep propensity during the day after dosing was evaluated with the multiple sleep latency test. 3. Compared with placebo, both active drugs improved subjective assessment of the ease of getting to sleep. At awakening, under flunitrazepam treatment, the reduction of performance, on memory and psychomotor tests, paralleled an increased subjective rating of sleepiness, but zolpidem treatment left subjects unimpaired compared with placebo. Similarly, daytime sleep propensity was enhanced throughout the following day under flunitrazepam treatment, but not under zolpidem treatment. Plasma assay for residual drug concentration at awakening found significant amounts of flunitrazepam and marginal amounts of zolpidem. 4. Results indicate that zolpidem 20 mg is devoid of residual effects in a range of tasks that were sensitive enough to demonstrate a prolonged wakefulness impairment following flunitrzepam 2 mg in healthy volunteers.[1]


  1. Daytime wakefulness following a bedtime oral dose of zolpidem 20 mg, flunitrazepam 2 mg and placebo. Bensimon, G., Foret, J., Warot, D., Lacomblez, L., Thiercelin, J.F., Simon, P. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1990) [Pubmed]
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