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MeSH Review

Flicker Fusion

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Disease relevance of Flicker Fusion


Psychiatry related information on Flicker Fusion

  • The effects of alprazolam (0.125 mg) taken twice a day on several cognitive and performance tasks (Pictures test, Digit-Symbol Substitution Test, Choice Reaction Time [CRT], Critical Flicker Fusion [CFF]) were investigated in healthy students [3].
  • Short- and long-term memory (paired words associate and pictures test), psychomotor performances (critical flicker fusion frequency, choice reaction time, digit symbol substitution test), and postural sway were evaluated before and 1.5, 4, 6, and 8 h after the administration of a single dose of zolpidem (10 mg), triazolam (0.25 mg), and placebo [4].
  • Plasma concentrations of zopiclone and psychometric tests, including simple and complex reaction time, and critical flicker fusion threshold, were performed at regular intervals after drug administration [5].

High impact information on Flicker Fusion

  • Nicotine also improved the ability of DAT patients to detect a flickering light in a critical flicker fusion test [6].
  • Modulation of the critical flicker fusion effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors by concomitant pupillary changes [7].
  • Ro 15-1788 dose dependently blocked the deficit in secondary memory produced by lorazepam, but also showed monotonic dose-related antagonism of its effects on indices of sedation (with the exception of the critical flicker fusion deficit, which was unaffected) [8].
  • The performance of the chronic BZ users did not differ significantly from age- and sex-matched anxious subjects, except that critical flicker fusion (CFF) thresholds were lower and subjective ratings of tranquilization were higher in the BZ users [9].
  • On all five performance assessments (choice reaction times, serial subtraction times, critical flicker fusion values), there was a consistent tendancy for clobazam performance to be comparatively better under high stress, and for placebo performance to be comparatively better under low stress [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Flicker Fusion


Biological context of Flicker Fusion


Associations of Flicker Fusion with chemical compounds

  • Measurements on day 2 showed that some tolerance had developed to the diazepam-induced impairment of reactive and coordinative skills, but not to its effects on flicker fusion or on the extraocular muscle balance [20].
  • Meperidine impaired reactive skills for as long as 3 hours and flicker-fusion discrimination and coordinative skills for as long as 12 hours [21].
  • After 30 min the p-deletion and critical flicker fusion scores were still impaired in the midazolam, but not in the propofol, group [22].
  • Quetiapine, but not haloperidol, reduced subjective alertness and critical flicker fusion frequency [23].
  • Critical flicker fusion was significantly increased in subjects on temazepam [24].

Gene context of Flicker Fusion


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Flicker Fusion


  1. Effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of zolpidem. Luurila, H., Kivistö, K.T., Neuvonen, P.J. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Flicker perimetry in diabetic children without retinopathy. Lobefalo, L., Verrotti, A., Mastropasqua, L., Chiarelli, F., Morgese, G., Gallenga, P.E. Can. J. Ophthalmol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Alprazolam 0.125 mg twice a day improves aspects of psychometric performance in healthy volunteers. Bourin, M., Colombel, M.C., Guitton, B. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Comparison of the effects of zolpidem and triazolam on memory functions, psychomotor performances, and postural sway in healthy subjects. Berlin, I., Warot, D., Hergueta, T., Molinier, P., Bagot, C., Puech, A.J. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. The effect of posture at the time of administration on the central depressant effects of the new hypnotic zopiclone. Channer, K.S., Dent, M., Roberts, C.J. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. The effects of nicotine on attention, information processing, and short-term memory in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type. Sahakian, B., Jones, G., Levy, R., Gray, J., Warburton, D. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Modulation of the critical flicker fusion effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors by concomitant pupillary changes. Schmitt, J.A., Riedel, W.J., Vuurman, E.F., Kruizinga, M., Ramaekers, J.G. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of lorazepam on memory, attention and sedation in man: antagonism by Ro 15-1788. Preston, G.C., Ward, C.E., Broks, P., Traub, M., Stahl, S.M. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Chronic use of benzodiazepines and psychomotor and cognitive test performance. Lucki, I., Rickels, K., Geller, A.M. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of a 1,5-benzodiazepine derivative upon performance in an experimental stress situation. Parrott, A.C., Davies, S. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of low doses of lorazepam on psychometric tests in healthy volunteers. Bourin, M., Couëtoux du Tertre, A., Colombel, M.C., Auget, J.L. International clinical psychopharmacology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Sedation during spinal anaesthesia: comparison of propofol and midazolam. Wilson, E., David, A., MacKenzie, N., Grant, I.S. British journal of anaesthesia. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. The effect of repeated doses of temazepam and nitrazepam on human psychomotor performance. Tedeschi, G., Griffiths, A.N., Smith, A.T., Richens, A. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Time-dependent pharmacodynamic effects of phenobarbital in humans. Barzaghi, N., Gatti, G., Manni, R., Galimberti, C.A., Zucca, C., Tartara, A., Perucca, E. Therapeutic drug monitoring. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Studies of desflurane in outpatient anesthesia. White, P.F. Anesth. Analg. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. The H1-antagonist mequitazine: studies on performance and visual function. Nicholson, A.N., Stone, B.M. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of sulpiride on vigilance in healthy subjects. Bartfai, A., Wiesel, F.A. International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Studies on the possible central effects in man of a neuropeptide (ACTH 4-9 analogue). Nicholson, A.N., Stone, B.M., Jones, S.J. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of taurine supplementation on VDT work induced visual stress. Zhang, M., Bi, L.F., Ai, Y.D., Yang, L.P., Wang, H.B., Liu, Z.Y., Sekine, M., Kagamimori, S. Amino Acids (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Tofisopam, a novel 3,4-benzodiazepine: multiple-dose effects on psychomotor skills and memory. Comparison with diazepam and interactions with ethanol. Seppälä, T., Palva, E., Mattila, M.J., Korttila, K., Shrotriya, R.C. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1980) [Pubmed]
  21. Psychomotor skills related to driving after intramuscular administration of diazepam and meperidine. Korttila, K., Linnoila, M. Anesthesiology (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. True patient-controlled sedation. Cook, L.B., Lockwood, G.G., Moore, C.M., Whitwam, J.G. Anaesthesia. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of quetiapine and haloperidol on prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle (eyeblink) response and the N1/P2 auditory evoked response in man. Graham, S.J., Scaife, J.C., Balboa Verduzco, A.M., Langley, R.W., Bradshaw, C.M., Szabadi, E. J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of zopiclone 7.5 mg and temazepam 20 mg in insomnia. Ngen, C.C., Hassan, R. International clinical psychopharmacology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Relationship between loperamide-induced sedative effect and digoxin pharmacokinetics in healthy Japanese subjects. Kobayashi, M., Saitoh, H., Yamaguchi, M., Saito, T., Fujita, H., Suno, M., Matsubara, K., Aungst, B.J. Pharm. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Flicker fusion thresholds in Best macular dystrophy. Massof, R.W., Fleischman, J.A., Fine, S.L., Yoder, F. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  27. Structure-function analysis of rods and cones in juvenile, adult, and aged C57bl/6 and Balb/c mice. Gresh, J., Goletz, P.W., Crouch, R.K., Rohrer, B. Vis. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Spontaneous motor activity in healthy volunteers after single doses of haloperidol. Frey, S., Bente, G., Fuchs, A., Preiswerk, G., Glatt, A., Imhof, P. International clinical psychopharmacology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Antagonism of the effects of clonidine by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, fluparoxan. Johnson, M.A., Blackwell, C.P., Smith, J. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. A placebo controlled investigation of the effects of tryptophan or placebo on subjective and objective measures of fatigue. Cunliffe, A., Obeid, O.A., Powell-Tuck, J. European journal of clinical nutrition. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Difference in action between oral triazolam and zopiclone. Aantaa, R., Salonen, M., Nyrke, T. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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