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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Correlation between cytosolic free calcium, contracture, ATP, and irreversible ischemic injury in perfused rat heart.

The relations between ATP depletion, increased cytosolic free calcium concentration [( Cai]), contracture development, and lethal myocardial ischemic injury, as evaluated by enzyme release, were examined using 19F nuclear magnetic resonance to measure [Cai] in 1,2-bis(2-amino-5-fluorophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (5F-BAPTA)-loaded perfused rat hearts. Total ischemia at 37 degrees C was induced in beating hearts, potassium-arrested hearts, magnesium-arrested hearts, and hearts pretreated with 0.9 microM diltiazem to reduce but not abolish contractility. In the beating hearts, time-averaged [Cai], which is intermediate between the systolic and the basal [Cai], was 544 +/- 74 nM. In contrast, in the potassium- and magnesium-arrested hearts, the time-averaged values are lower than in beating hearts (352 +/- 88 nM for potassium arrest, 143 +/- 22 nM for magnesium arrest). During ischemia, ATP depletion, contracture, and a rise in [Cai] are delayed by cardiac arrest, but all occur more rapidly in the potassium-arrested hearts than in the magnesium-arrested hearts. The diltiazem-treated hearts were generally similar to the magnesium-arrested hearts in their response to ischemia. Under all conditions, contracture development was initiated after tissue ATP had fallen to less than 50% of control; invariably, there was a progressive rise in [Cai] during and following contracture development. Reperfusion with oxygenated perfusate shortly after peak contracture development resulted in a return of [Cai] to its preischemic level, resynthesis of creatine phosphate, no significant enzyme release, and no substantial loss of 5F-BAPTA from the heart. The data demonstrate that an increase in [Cai] precedes lethal myocardial ischemic injury. This rise in [Cai] may accelerate the depletion of cellular ATP and may directly contribute to the development of lethal ischemic cell injury.[1]


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