The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Thiophosphorylation causes Ca2+-independent norepinephrine secretion from permeabilized PC12 cells.

Adenosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP gamma S) was used to examine the role of phosphorylation in the regulation of norepinephrine secretion by digitonin-permeabilized PC12 cells. While most kinases will use ATP gamma S to thiophosphorylate proteins, thiophosphorylated proteins are relatively resistant to dethiophosphorylation by protein phosphatases. Norepinephrine secretion by permeabilized PC12 cells was ATP- and Ca2+-dependent but resistant to calmodulin antagonists. Half-maximum secretion was obtained in 0.75 microM Ca2+. Permeabilized PC12 cells were incubated with ATP gamma S in the absence of Ca2+, the ATP gamma S was removed, and norepinephrine secretion was determined. Preincubation with ATP gamma S increased the amount of norepinephrine secreted in the absence of Ca2+, but it had no effect on the amount released in the presence of Ca2+. After a 15-min preincubation in 1 mM ATP gamma S, there was almost as much secretion in the absence of Ca2+ as in its presence. Inclusion of ATP in the preincubation inhibited the effect of ATP gamma S. Ca2+ stimulated the rate of modification by ATP gamma S as brief preincubations with ATP gamma S in the presence of Ca2+ resulted in higher levels of Ca2+-independent secretion than did preincubations with ATP gamma S in the absence of Ca2+. Similarly, brief preincubations of permeabilized cells with ATP in the presence of Ca2+ resulted in elevated levels of Ca2+-independent secretion. Secretion of norepinephrine from ATP gamma S-treated cells was ATP-dependent. These results suggest that norepinephrine secretion by PC12 cells is regulated by a Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation. Once this phosphorylation has occurred, secretion is still ATP-dependent, but it no longer requires Ca2+.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities