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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Primary oesophageal motility disorders. Current therapeutic concepts.

Various oesophageal manometric disorders have been associated with chest pain or dysphagia. The classic motility disorders are achalasia and diffuse oesophageal spasm. In achalasia, a disorder of aperistalsis in the oesophageal body and incomplete relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter, either surgical myotomy or pneumatic dilatation is an effective approach, although some investigators have suggested a role for pharmacological therapy. For the treatment of diffuse oesophageal spasm, a disorder of non-peristaltic motor activity in the oesophagus, various pharmacological approaches with nitrates, anticholinergics, and calcium antagonists have been used. In the presence of associated lower oesophageal sphincter dysfunction, bouginage or pneumatic dilatation may be indicated. Long oesophagomyotomy should be considered for those patients who fail to respond to these measures. Recent manometric techniques have led to the identification of patients with chest pain or dysphagia who have abnormalities of increased contractile amplitude ('nutcracker' oesophagus) or duration. An association with gastro-oesophageal reflux or with psychiatric disturbance has been suggested. Treatment directed towards these factors is indicated and may be supplemented by pharmacological intervention, e.g. by calcium antagonists or anticholinergics.[1]

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