The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Nitrates     nitrate

Synonyms: trioxonitrate, NITRATE ION, Nitrate(1-), NO3-, AG-D-93339, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Nitrates


Psychiatry related information on Nitrates

  • AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether sildenafil, used for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED), affects the exercise tolerance and ischaemic threshold in men with exercise-induced angina not taking nitrates [6].
  • The disposable sensor responds to nitrate rapidly-the typical response time is 5 min-and reversibly over a wide dynamic range (26 microM-63 mM) with sensor-to-sensor reproducibility (relative standard deviation, RSD, 3.68%, as log aNO3-, at the medium level of the range and RSD 1.39% for repeated measurements with the same sensor) [7].
  • For the treatment of diffuse oesophageal spasm, a disorder of non-peristaltic motor activity in the oesophagus, various pharmacological approaches with nitrates, anticholinergics, and calcium antagonists have been used [8].
  • Encephalopathy resembling Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease following oral, prescribed doses of bismuth nitrate [9].
  • Because of its high negative predictive value, irrespective of the posttransplantation delay, nitrate serum determination may have clinical utility in the noninvasive monitoring of the cardiac transplant patient and could also add important information to endomyocardial biopsy analysis for treatment decision making [10].

High impact information on Nitrates

  • CHL1 mRNA is found predominantly in roots and displays nitrate- and pH-dependent regulation [11].
  • Conceptual and numerical models of nitrogen cycling in temperate forests assume that nitrogen is lost from these ecosystems predominantly by way of inorganic forms, such as nitrate and ammonium ions [12].
  • Nitrates, nitrites and gastric cancer in Great Britain [13].
  • Nitrogen fixation by the cyanobacterium Anabaena is carried out in heterocysts, specialized, non-dividing cells which differentiate under conditions of ammonia or nitrate deprivation [14].
  • If energy for the fixation of nitrogen symbiotically and that for the assimilation of NH4+ or NO3- from the soil solution are both provided by the chemical products of photosynthesis, then the CO2 respired in supplying that energy must contribute to the total efflux of CO2 from the plant in the dark [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Nitrates


Biological context of Nitrates


Anatomical context of Nitrates


Associations of Nitrates with other chemical compounds

  • Studies of nitrate balance in humans and analyses of fecal and ileostomy samples indicate that nitrite and nitrate are formed de novo in the intestine, possibly by heterotrophic nitrification [26].
  • Letter: Silver nitrate ocular damage in newborns [27].
  • Increased levels of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) in culture supernatants were associated with NADPH-dependent NOS activity in the cell lysates [28].
  • Our results showing increased endogenous nitrate synthesis in patients receiving IL-2 demonstrate for the first time that a cytokine-inducible, high-output L-arginine/NO pathway exists in humans [29].
  • Dietary supplement with vitamin C prevents nitrate tolerance [30].
  • The nitrate reductase inhibitor, azide, abrogates NO evolution by Salmonella, and production of NO occurs only in the absence from the assays of nitrate; both features reveal a marked similarity between the NO-generating activities of this bacterium and plants [31].

Gene context of Nitrates


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Nitrates


  1. Nitrate therapy for stable angina pectoris. Parker, J.D., Parker, J.O. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Prevention and reversal of nitrate tolerance in patients with congestive heart failure. Packer, M., Lee, W.H., Kessler, P.D., Gottlieb, S.S., Medina, N., Yushak, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Transgingival nitrate syncope. O'Keefe, J.H., Kwong, E.M., Tancredi, R.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Relation between maternal diet and subsequent primitive neuroectodermal brain tumors in young children. Bunin, G.R., Kuijten, R.R., Buckley, J.D., Rorke, L.B., Meadows, A.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Nifedipine therapy for coronary-artery spasm. Experience in 127 patients. Antman, E., Muller, J., Goldberg, S., MacAlpin, R., Rubenfire, M., Tabatznik, B., Liang, C.S., Heupler, F., Achuff, S., Reichek, N., Geltman, E., Kerin, N.Z., Neff, R.K., Braunwald, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Sildenafil citrate does not reduce exercise tolerance in men with erectile dysfunction and chronic stable angina. Fox, K.M., Thadani, U., Ma, P.T., Nash, S.D., Keating, Z., Czorniak, M.A., Gillies, H., Keltai, M. Eur. Heart J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Disposable receptor-based optical sensor for nitrate. Capitán-Vallvey, L.F., Arroyo-Guerrero, E., Fernández-Ramos, M.D., Santoyo-Gonzalez, F. Anal. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Primary oesophageal motility disorders. Current therapeutic concepts. Traube, M., McCallum, R.W. Drugs (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Encephalopathy resembling Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease following oral, prescribed doses of bismuth nitrate. Von Bose, M.J., Zaudig, M. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Increased serum nitrate concentration in cardiac transplant patients. A marker for acute allograft cellular rejection. Benvenuti, C., Bories, P.N., Loisance, D. Transplantation (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. The herbicide sensitivity gene CHL1 of Arabidopsis encodes a nitrate-inducible nitrate transporter. Tsay, Y.F., Schroeder, J.I., Feldmann, K.A., Crawford, N.M. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Nitrogen loss from unpolluted South American forests mainly via dissolved organic compounds. Perakis, S.S., Hedin, L.O. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Nitrates, nitrites and gastric cancer in Great Britain. Forman, D., Al-Dabbagh, S., Doll, R. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Rearrangement of nitrogen fixation genes during heterocyst differentiation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena. Golden, J.W., Robinson, S.J., Haselkorn, R. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Energy requirement for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Silsbury, J.H. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  16. A reappraisal of nitrate therapy. Abrams, J. JAMA (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Nifedipine-induced hypotension and myocardial ischemia in refractory angina pectoris. Boden, W.E., Korr, K.S., Bough, E.W. JAMA (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Modulation of renal disease in autoimmune NZB/NZW mice by immunization with bacterial DNA. Gilkeson, G.S., Ruiz, P., Pippen, A.M., Alexander, A.L., Lefkowith, J.B., Pisetsky, D.S. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Gallium nitrate inhibits calcium resorption from bone and is effective treatment for cancer-related hypercalcemia. Warrell, R.P., Bockman, R.S., Coonley, C.J., Isaacs, M., Staszewski, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Randomised trial of high-dose isosorbide dinitrate plus low-dose furosemide versus high-dose furosemide plus low-dose isosorbide dinitrate in severe pulmonary oedema. Cotter, G., Metzkor, E., Kaluski, E., Faigenberg, Z., Miller, R., Simovitz, A., Shaham, O., Marghitay, D., Koren, M., Blatt, A., Moshkovitz, Y., Zaidenstein, R., Golik, A. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Biochemistry of the bacterial catabolism of aromatic compounds in anaerobic environments. Evans, W.C. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. Biochemical mechanism of nitroglycerin action and tolerance: is this old mystery solved? Fung, H.L. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent formation of nitrite and nitrate in murine fibroblasts. Werner-Felmayer, G., Werner, E.R., Fuchs, D., Hausen, A., Reibnegger, G., Wachter, H. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Metabolic fate of L-arginine in relation to microbiostatic capability of murine macrophages. Granger, D.L., Hibbs, J.B., Perfect, J.R., Durack, D.T. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Hypotension and reduced nitric oxide-elicited vasorelaxation in transgenic mice overexpressing endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Ohashi, Y., Kawashima, S., Hirata, K., Yamashita, T., Ishida, T., Inoue, N., Sakoda, T., Kurihara, H., Yazaki, Y., Yokoyama, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Nitrite and nitrate are formed by endogenous synthesis in the human intestine. Tannenbaum, S.R., Fett, D., Young, V.R., Land, P.D., Bruce, W.R. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  27. Letter: Silver nitrate ocular damage in newborns. Hornblass, A. JAMA (1975) [Pubmed]
  28. Stimulation of the nitric oxide synthase pathway in human hepatocytes by cytokines and endotoxin. Nussler, A.K., Di Silvio, M., Billiar, T.R., Hoffman, R.A., Geller, D.A., Selby, R., Madariaga, J., Simmons, R.L. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Evidence for cytokine-inducible nitric oxide synthesis from L-arginine in patients receiving interleukin-2 therapy. Hibbs, J.B., Westenfelder, C., Taintor, R., Vavrin, Z., Kablitz, C., Baranowski, R.L., Ward, J.H., Menlove, R.L., McMurry, M.P., Kushner, J.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Dietary supplement with vitamin C prevents nitrate tolerance. Bassenge, E., Fink, N., Skatchkov, M., Fink, B. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Nitric oxide homeostasis in Salmonella typhimurium: roles of respiratory nitrate reductase and flavohemoglobin. Gilberthorpe, N.J., Poole, R.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  32. An Arabidopsis MADS box gene that controls nutrient-induced changes in root architecture. Zhang, H., Forde, B.G. Science (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Sequence and nitrate regulation of the Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA encoding nitrate reductase, a metalloflavoprotein with three functional domains. Crawford, N.M., Smith, M., Bellissimo, D., Davis, R.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  34. The narL gene product activates the nitrate reductase operon and represses the fumarate reductase and trimethylamine N-oxide reductase operons in Escherichia coli. Iuchi, S., Lin, E.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  35. Either of two functionally redundant sensor proteins, NarX and NarQ, is sufficient for nitrate regulation in Escherichia coli K-12. Rabin, R.S., Stewart, V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. A central role for IL-1 beta in the in vitro and in vivo regulation of hepatic inducible nitric oxide synthase. IL-1 beta induces hepatic nitric oxide synthesis. Geller, D.A., de Vera, M.E., Russell, D.A., Shapiro, R.A., Nussler, A.K., Simmons, R.L., Billiar, T.R. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. The Arabidopsis ATNRT2.7 nitrate transporter controls nitrate content in seeds. Chopin, F., Orsel, M., Dorbe, M.F., Chardon, F., Truong, H.N., Miller, A.J., Krapp, A., Daniel-Vedele, F. Plant. Cell (2007) [Pubmed]
  38. Characterization of the Arabidopsis nitrate transporter NRT1.6 reveals a role of nitrate in early embryo development. Almagro, A., Lin, S.H., Tsay, Y.F. Plant. Cell (2008) [Pubmed]
  39. A genetic screen for nitrate regulatory mutants captures the nitrate transporter gene NRT1.1. Wang, R., Xing, X., Wang, Y., Tran, A., Crawford, N.M. Plant Physiol. (2009) [Pubmed]
  40. The Arabidopsis abscisic acid catabolic gene CYP707A2 plays a key role in nitrate control of seed dormancy. Matakiadis, T., Alboresi, A., Jikumaru, Y., Tatematsu, K., Pichon, O., Renou, J.P., Kamiya, Y., Nambara, E., Truong, H.N. Plant Physiol. (2009) [Pubmed]
  41. Alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated coronary artery spasm. Levene, D.L., Freeman, M.R. JAMA (1976) [Pubmed]
  42. Meta-analysis of trials comparing beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, and nitrates for stable angina. Heidenreich, P.A., McDonald, K.M., Hastie, T., Fadel, B., Hagan, V., Lee, B.K., Hlatky, M.A. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  43. Endogenously synthesized nitric oxide prevents endotoxin-induced glomerular thrombosis. Shultz, P.J., Raij, L. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  44. Myeloperoxidase produces nitrating oxidants in vivo. Gaut, J.P., Byun, J., Tran, H.D., Lauber, W.M., Carroll, J.A., Hotchkiss, R.S., Belaaouaj, A., Heinecke, J.W. J. Clin. Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities