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MeSH Review

Motor Activity

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Disease relevance of Motor Activity


Psychiatry related information on Motor Activity


High impact information on Motor Activity

  • The ECM turnover is influenced by physical activity, and both collagen synthesis and degrading metalloprotease enzymes increase with mechanical loading [11].
  • Tissue-specific overexpression of the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) ortholog shaggy (sgg) shortens the period of the Drosophila circadian locomotor activity cycle [12].
  • Additionally, locomotor activity in light-dark (LD) cycles is impaired and activity levels are reduced in Mop3-/- mice [13].
  • Dopamine also influences initiation and coordination of motor activity and is required for sensorimotor functions [14].
  • Unlike NR1 null mice, these mice survive to adulthood and display behavioral abnormalities, including increased motor activity and stereotypy and deficits in social and sexual interactions [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Motor Activity


Biological context of Motor Activity


Anatomical context of Motor Activity


Gene context of Motor Activity

  • Here we show that mice lacking the Cryl or Cry2 protein display accelerated and delayed free-running periodicity of locomotor activity, respectively [32].
  • Regulation of daily locomotor activity and sleep by hypothalamic EGF receptor signaling [27].
  • Long-term, multielectrode recordings showed that heterozygous Clock mutant neurons have lengthened periods and that homozygous Clock neurons are arrhythmic, paralleling the effects on locomotor activity in the animal [33].
  • Wild-type mice respond to an increase in the fat content of the diet by rapidly increasing diet-induced thermogenesis and by increasing physical activity, neither of which are observed in MC4R-/- mice [34].
  • Mice homozygous for the targeted allele of either mPer1 or mPer2 had severely disrupted locomotor activity rhythms during extended exposure to constant darkness [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Motor Activity


  1. Loss of neuropathy target esterase in mice links organophosphate exposure to hyperactivity. Winrow, C.J., Hemming, M.L., Allen, D.M., Quistad, G.B., Casida, J.E., Barlow, C. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. beta-Amyloid precursor protein-deficient mice show reactive gliosis and decreased locomotor activity. Zheng, H., Jiang, M., Trumbauer, M.E., Sirinathsinghji, D.J., Hopkins, R., Smith, D.W., Heavens, R.P., Dawson, G.R., Boyce, S., Conner, M.W., Stevens, K.A., Slunt, H.H., Sisoda, S.S., Chen, H.Y., Van der Ploeg, L.H. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Sex differences in osteoporosis in older adults with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Barrett-Connor, E., Holbrook, T.L. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Physical activity and coronary heart disease in women: is "no pain, no gain" passé? Lee, I.M., Rexrode, K.M., Cook, N.R., Manson, J.E., Buring, J.E. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Leisure-time physical activity levels and risk of coronary heart disease and death. The Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Leon, A.S., Connett, J., Jacobs, D.R., Rauramaa, R. JAMA (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Cardiovascular response, feeding behavior and locomotor activity in mice lacking the NPY Y1 receptor. Pedrazzini, T., Seydoux, J., Künstner, P., Aubert, J.F., Grouzmann, E., Beermann, F., Brunner, H.R. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Belgian heart disease prevention project: incidence and mortality results. Kornitzer, M., De Backer, G., Dramaix, M., Kittel, F., Thilly, C., Graffar, M., Vuylsteek, K. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Long-term bone loss in men: effects of genetic and environmental factors. Slemenda, C.W., Christian, J.C., Reed, T., Reister, T.K., Williams, C.J., Johnston, C.C. Ann. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Dopamine D1 receptors involved in locomotor activity and accumbens neural responses to prediction of reward associated with place. Tran, A.H., Tamura, R., Uwano, T., Kobayashi, T., Katsuki, M., Ono, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. How to implement physical activity in primary and secondary prevention. A statement for healthcare-professionals from the Task Force on Risk-reduction, American Heart Association. Fletcher, G.F. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Role of extracellular matrix in adaptation of tendon and skeletal muscle to mechanical loading. Kjaer, M. Physiol. Rev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. A role for the segment polarity gene shaggy/GSK-3 in the Drosophila circadian clock. Martinek, S., Inonog, S., Manoukian, A.S., Young, M.W. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Mop3 is an essential component of the master circadian pacemaker in mammals. Bunger, M.K., Wilsbacher, L.D., Moran, S.M., Clendenin, C., Radcliffe, L.A., Hogenesch, J.B., Simon, M.C., Takahashi, J.S., Bradfield, C.A. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Dopamine is required for hyperphagia in Lep(ob/ob) mice. Szczypka, M.S., Rainey, M.A., Palmiter, R.D. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Mice with reduced NMDA receptor expression display behaviors related to schizophrenia. Mohn, A.R., Gainetdinov, R.R., Caron, M.G., Koller, B.H. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. The effect of nicotine on energy expenditure during light physical activity. Perkins, K.A., Epstein, L.H., Marks, B.L., Stiller, R.L., Jacob, R.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of diet and exercise in men and postmenopausal women with low levels of HDL cholesterol and high levels of LDL cholesterol. Stefanick, M.L., Mackey, S., Sheehan, M., Ellsworth, N., Haskell, W.L., Wood, P.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Osteoporosis in women with anorexia nervosa. Rigotti, N.A., Nussbaum, S.R., Herzog, D.B., Neer, R.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Gastrointestinal myoelectrical activity in idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Sullivan, M.A., Snape, W.J., Matarazzo, S.A., Petrokubi, R.J., Jeffries, G., Cohen, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of octreotide on intestinal motility and bacterial overgrowth in scleroderma. Soudah, H.C., Hasler, W.L., Owyang, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. The effects of norepinephrine transporter inactivation on locomotor activity in mice. Mitchell, H.A., Ahern, T.H., Liles, L.C., Javors, M.A., Weinshenker, D. Biol. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Growth hormone replacement therapy in adults with growth hormone deficiency improves maximal oxygen consumption independently of dosing regimen or physical activity. Hartman, M.L., Weltman, A., Zagar, A., Qualy, R.L., Hoffman, A.R., Merriam, G.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2008) [Pubmed]
  23. Multiple circadian oscillators regulate the timing of behavioral and endocrine rhythms in female golden hamsters. Swann, J.M., Turek, F.W. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. A circadian output in Drosophila mediated by neurofibromatosis-1 and Ras/MAPK. Williams, J.A., Su, H.S., Bernards, A., Field, J., Sehgal, A. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Vegetable, fruit, and cereal fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. Rimm, E.B., Ascherio, A., Giovannucci, E., Spiegelman, D., Stampfer, M.J., Willett, W.C. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Physical activity and public health. A recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. Pate, R.R., Pratt, M., Blair, S.N., Haskell, W.L., Macera, C.A., Bouchard, C., Buchner, D., Ettinger, W., Heath, G.W., King, A.C. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Regulation of daily locomotor activity and sleep by hypothalamic EGF receptor signaling. Kramer, A., Yang, F.C., Snodgrass, P., Li, X., Scammell, T.E., Davis, F.C., Weitz, C.J. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Exercise during development induces an increase in Purkinje cell dendritic tree size. Pysh, J.J., Weiss, G.M. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  29. Total energy expenditure and the level of physical activity correlate with plasma leptin concentrations in five-year-old children. Salbe, A.D., Nicolson, M., Ravussin, E. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect of somatostatin on gallbladder volume and small intestinal motor activity in humans. Neri, M., Cuccurullo, F., Marzio, L. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of nifedipine on sphincter of Oddi motor activity: studies in healthy volunteers and patients with biliary dyskinesia. Guelrud, M., Mendoza, S., Rossiter, G., Ramirez, L., Barkin, J. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Mammalian Cry1 and Cry2 are essential for maintenance of circadian rhythms. van der Horst, G.T., Muijtjens, M., Kobayashi, K., Takano, R., Kanno, S., Takao, M., de Wit, J., Verkerk, A., Eker, A.P., van Leenen, D., Buijs, R., Bootsma, D., Hoeijmakers, J.H., Yasui, A. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Clock controls circadian period in isolated suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons. Herzog, E.D., Takahashi, J.S., Block, G.D. Nat. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Melanocortin-4 receptor is required for acute homeostatic responses to increased dietary fat. Butler, A.A., Marks, D.L., Fan, W., Kuhn, C.M., Bartolome, M., Cone, R.D. Nat. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Differential functions of mPer1, mPer2, and mPer3 in the SCN circadian clock. Bae, K., Jin, X., Maywood, E.S., Hastings, M.H., Reppert, S.M., Weaver, D.R. Neuron (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Hertog, M.G., Feskens, E.J., Hollman, P.C., Katan, M.B., Kromhout, D. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Long-term intermittent intravenous insulin therapy and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Aoki, T.T., Benbarka, M.M., Okimura, M.C., Arcangeli, M.A., Walter, R.M., Wilson, L.D., Truong, M.P., Barber, A.R., Kumagai, L.F. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  38. Dextroamphetamine. Its cognitive and behavioral effects in normal and hyperactive boys and normal men. Rapoport, J.L., Buchsbaum, M.S., Weingartner, H., Zahn, T.P., Ludlow, C., Mikkelsen, E.J. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1980) [Pubmed]
  39. Glucocorticoids have state-dependent stimulant effects on the mesencephalic dopaminergic transmission. Piazza, P.V., Rougé-Pont, F., Deroche, V., Maccari, S., Simon, H., Le Moal, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  40. Reversal of behavioral changes in rats subjected to portacaval shunt with oral neomycin therapy. Conjeevaram, H.S., Nagle, A., Katz, A., Kaminsky-Russ, K., McCullough, A.J., Mullen, K.D. Hepatology (1994) [Pubmed]
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