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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Metabolic oxidation of the carcinogens 4-aminobiphenyl and 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) by human hepatic microsomes and by purified rat hepatic cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases.

Metabolic N-oxidation and ring-oxidation of carcinogenic arylamines by hepatic cytochromes P-450 are generally regarded as critical activation and detoxification pathways, respectively. Two arylamines with known human exposure, 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP) and 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA), have been examined as substrates for 10 different purified rat hepatic cytochromes P-450 and for human liver microsomal preparations from 22 individuals. Metabolites were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and flow scintillation techniques. As reported for certain other carcinogenic arylamines, the isosafrole-inducible isozyme, P-450ISF-G, had the highest catalytic activity for ABP N-oxidation (13.6 nmol/min/nmol P-450), but P-450BNF-B, P-450UT-A, P-450UT-F, and P-450PB-B also showed appreciable activity. Ring-oxidation of ABP occurred only to a minor extent. In contrast, N-oxidation of MOCA was preferentially catalyzed by the phenobarbital-inducible enzymes, P-450PB-B and P-450PB-D (9.0 and 6.6 nmol/min/nmol P-450, respectively). MOCA ring-oxidation and methylene carbon oxidation showed varied cytochrome P-450 selectivity and accounted for 14 to 79% of total oxidation products. There was a 44-fold variation in rates of ABP N-oxidation in the 22 human liver microsomal preparations, while rates of N-oxidation of MOCA varied only 8-fold. Ring/methylene carbon-oxidation of MOCA accounted for 6-19% of total oxidation products in the case of the human microsomal preparations, whereas ring-oxidation of ABP accounted for less than 7% of total oxidation. In addition, there was a strong correlation (R = 0.90) between rates of ABP N-oxidation and phenacetin O-deethylation, which is considered a human genetic polymorphism. Moreover, both the ABP N-oxidation and phenacetin O-deethylation activities of human liver microsomes showed a good correlation (R = 0.72) with the levels of cytochrome P-450 immunochemically related to rat P-450ISF-G. These data indicate that specific inducible and constitutive cytochromes P-450 are involved in the metabolic activation and detoxification of the carcinogens ABP and MOCA. Therefore, individual profiles of cytochromes P-450, affected by both environmental and genetic factors, may be significant determinants of individual susceptibility to arylamine carcinogenesis.[1]


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