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Chemical Compound Review

CHARCOAL     methane

Synonyms: Graphite, DIAMOND, Biogas, Carbon, Norit, ...
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Disease relevance of methane


Psychiatry related information on methane


High impact information on methane

  • This was an early example of oxidative phosphorylation in intact cells, and it required methylene blue and oxygen [11].
  • In cancer cells, as opposed to normal cells, the presence of this complex brings about the recruitment of DNA methyl transferases, leading to de novo methylation [12].
  • Here we quantitatively examine genetic interactions among 26 Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes conferring resistance to the DNA-damaging agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), as determined by chemogenomic fitness profiling of pooled deletion strains [13].
  • We used a combination of genetic (antisense and siRNA) and pharmacologic (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) inhibitors of DNA methyl transferases to study the contribution of the DNMT isotypes to cancer-cell methylation [14].
  • So is the methyl group a permanent mark on histones, or can it be removed by an active process necessary for regulated gene expression [15]?

Chemical compound and disease context of methane


Biological context of methane

  • This novel function of CRT in intracellular Ca2+ signaling may be regulated by Ca2+ occupancy of the high affinity binding site [21].
  • The methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins of E. coli: a repellent-stimulated, covalent modification, distinct from methylation [22].
  • In striking contrast to this result, Hae III acted on formaldehyde-fixed minichromosomes to yield only one of the limit-digest fragments, F, which is located in the immediate vicinity of the origin of replication, spanning nucleotides 5169 and 250 on the DNA sequence map of Reddy et al [23].
  • The anticipated effect in stargazer mutants, inappropriate Ca2+ entry, may contribute to their more pronounced seizure phenotype compared with other mouse absence models with Ca2+-channel defects [24].
  • All other restriction endonucleases tested (Mbo I, Mbo II, Hind III, Hin II+III and Hinf I), for which there are no closely spaced recognition sequences in the above mentioned regions of the SV40 genome, did not produce any significant amount of limit-digest DNA fragments from formaldehyde-fixed minichromosomes [23].

Anatomical context of methane

  • The fact that anti-L3T4 antibodies inhibit antigen and Con A-stimulated Ca2+ transport and IL-2 production without affecting phosphatidylinositol turnover suggests that L3T4 may play a critical role in modulating the activation of the T cell receptor-associated Ca2+ transporter in T cell stimulus-response coupling [25].
  • In Xenopus oocytes, Ca(2+)-sensitive gating of the IP3 receptor (IP3R) produces repetitive waves of Ca2+ release [21].
  • It encodes a 36-kD protein (stargazin) with structural similarity to the gamma subunit of skeletal muscle voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+) channels [24].
  • A new procedure is described which allows selective reversal of formaldehyde cross-linking in both histone-histone and histone-DNA of nuclei isolated from calf thymus [26].
  • In the male germ line, these methyl moieties are removed during spermatogenesis, and this occurs before the programmed reactivation of Xist in the testis [27].

Associations of methane with other chemical compounds

  • Treatment of chromatin or nuclei with formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde results in the appearance of crosslinked histones as analyzed on SDS gels [28].
  • The finding that the methyl cytosine-binding protein MeCP2 binds to histone deacetylases and represses transcription in vivo supports a model in which MeCP2 recruits histone deacetylases to methylated DNA, resulting in histone deacetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional silencing [29].
  • The formation of alkali-labile sites in DNA lessened its ability to accept methyl groups in vitro, but the methylation reaction was much less sensitive to thymine dimers or double-strand breaks [30].
  • We examined the role of the luminal Ca(2+)-binding protein calreticulin (CRT) in IP3-mediated Ca2+ signaling by using Ca2+ wave activity as a sensitive Ca2+ release assay [21].
  • Effect of triglyceride levels on methyl and methylene envelope line widths in proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human plasma [31].

Gene context of methane

  • Mapping Polycomb-repressed domains in the bithorax complex using in vivo formaldehyde cross-linked chromatin [32].
  • Drosophila transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins and some mammalian homologues (TRPC proteins) are thought to mediate capacitative Ca2+ entry [33].
  • Using formaldehyde-based in vivo cross-linking, we show that the Gal4p activation domain recruits SAGA to the GAL1 UAS [34].
  • AFC (a specific inhibitor of prenyl-cysteine carboxyl methyl transferases) blocked the carboxyl methylation of CDC42 in five types of insulin-secreting cells, without blocking GTPgammaS-induced translocation, implying that methylation is a consequence (not a cause) of transfer to membrane sites [35].
  • We also show that a-factor, RAS1 and RAS2 are physiological methyl-accepting substrates for this enzyme by demonstrating that these proteins are not methylated in a ste14 null mutant [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of methane

  • It is indistinguishable from histones in chromatin by its resistance to trypsin, pattern of reactivity with 125I. and ability to form specific crosslinked products after treatment with formaldehyde [37].
  • Both acetone and formaldehyde fixation were used for the immunofluorescence tests [38].
  • Using purified 32P-labeled RNA and 125I-labeled p12 protein, complexes that are stabilized by formaldehyde-cross-linking can be readily detected after velocity gradient centrifugation [39].
  • We have elaborated a method, based on the in vivo formaldehyde cross-linking technique, that allows a substantial enrichment for Pc-interacting sites by immunoprecipitation of the cross-linked chromatin with anti-Pc antibodies [32].
  • One of them binds specifically to methylated DNA in vitro and molecular cloning reveals a similarity to a known methyl CpG-binding protein [40].


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  16. Bhopal tragedy's health effects. A review of methyl isocyanate toxicity. Mehta, P.S., Mehta, A.S., Mehta, S.J., Makhijani, A.B. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Enzymatic methyl esterification of erythrocyte membrane proteins is impaired in chronic renal failure. Evidence for high levels of the natural inhibitor S-adenosylhomocysteine. Pema, A.F., Ingrosso, D., Zappia, V., Galletti, P., Capasso, G., De Santo, N.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Hepatic DNA methylation and liver tumor formation in male C3H mice fed methionine- and choline-deficient diets. Shivapurkar, N., Wilson, M.J., Hoover, K.L., Mikol, Y.B., Creasia, D., Poirier, L.A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
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  23. A stretch of "late" SV40 viral DNA about 400 bp long which includes the origin of replication is specifically exposed in SV40 minichromosomes. Varshavsky, A.J., Sundin, O., Bohn, M. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  24. The mouse stargazer gene encodes a neuronal Ca2+-channel gamma subunit. Letts, V.A., Felix, R., Biddlecome, G.H., Arikkath, J., Mahaffey, C.L., Valenzuela, A., Bartlett, F.S., Mori, Y., Campbell, K.P., Frankel, W.N. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
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  33. Direct activation of human TRPC6 and TRPC3 channels by diacylglycerol. Hofmann, T., Obukhov, A.G., Schaefer, M., Harteneck, C., Gudermann, T., Schultz, G. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. SAGA is an essential in vivo target of the yeast acidic activator Gal4p. Bhaumik, S.R., Green, M.R. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
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  36. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae STE14 gene encodes a methyltransferase that mediates C-terminal methylation of a-factor and RAS proteins. Hrycyna, C.A., Sapperstein, S.K., Clarke, S., Michaelis, S. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
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