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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Congenital longitudinal deficiency of the tibia.

Fifty-seven patients (seventy-one limbs) who had congenital longitudinal deficiency of the tibia (tibial hemimelia) were retrospectively categorized according to radiographic type (Types 1 through 4, as described by Jones et al.). At an average follow-up of nine years, fifty-six of fifty-seven patients walked independently. An ablative surgical procedure was performed on sixty-one of the seventy-one lower extremities. According to the classification of Jones et al., fifty-four limbs had a Type-1 (a or b) or Type-2 deficiency. In twenty-two of these extremities, disarticulation of the knee was performed; in twenty-five, a Syme amputation; and in one, a Chopart amputation. The ipsilateral foot was retained in six extremities that had a severe Type-1 or Type-2 deficiency. Medial transfer of the fibula (the Brown procedure) generally yielded less than satisfactory results; in ten of fourteen extremities, one or more additional operations were needed. Seventeen extremities were classified as having a Type-3 or Type-4 deficiency; Syme amputation was done in nine and Chopart amputation, in four. Despite satisfactory reconstruction of the ankle, a Syme amputation was necessary in most extremities that had a Type-4 deficiency because a major leg-length discrepancy was projected. In four limbs that had a Type-3 or Type-4 deficiency, the foot was retained.[1]


  1. Congenital longitudinal deficiency of the tibia. Schoenecker, P.L., Capelli, A.M., Millar, E.A., Sheen, M.R., Haher, T., Aiona, M.D., Meyer, L.C. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (1989) [Pubmed]
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