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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Amputation


Psychiatry related information on Amputation


High impact information on Amputation

  • Limbs generated at site of tail amputation in marbled balloon frog after vitamin A treatment [8].
  • The accumulations of three beta-tubulin mRNAs (beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3) are temporally coordinated with ciliogenesis during blastula development and with the regeneration of cilia after their amputation [9].
  • Multiple extremity amputations in hypotensive patients treated with dopamine [10].
  • All patients recovered following amputation of the involved extremity, and treatment with high-dose penicillin in three cases, and erythromycin plus high-dose cephalothin in the fourth [11].
  • Spontaneous bleeding or delayed rebleeding could not be documented in PAI-1-/- mice after partial amputation of the tail or of the caecum [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Amputation


Biological context of Amputation


Anatomical context of Amputation

  • METHODS: In a randomised, double-blind trial, 60 patients scheduled for lower-limb amputation were randomly assigned epidural bupivacaine (0.25% 4-7 mL/h) and morphine (0.16-0.28 mg/h) for 18 h before and during the operation (29 patients; blockade group) or epidural saline (4-7 mL/h) and oral or intramuscular morphine (31 patients; control group) [23].
  • Forelimb amputation partially prevented the normal developmental increase of SP in the sixth cervical DRG destined to innervate that limb [24].
  • Glucose, fructose, sorbitol and myoinositol concentrations were measured in biopsies of peripheral nerve obtained at above-knee or below-knee amputation [25].
  • However, shank motoneurons did not innervate the thigh when motor nerve transection was combined with amputation of the hindlimb just above the presumptive knee.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[26]
  • 6. The total area of 2DG uptake in the somatosensory cortex contralateral to a digit amputation conducted at 2 or 4 wk was not greater than that in the normal hemisphere, even though it was more widespread [27].

Associations of Amputation with chemical compounds

  • Failure of metronidazole/penicillin oral prophylaxis to prevent amputation stump infection [28].
  • Capsaicin for treatment of post-traumatic amputation stump pain [29].
  • Amputations are done more frequently among black persons than among white persons (9.0 per 1000 compared with 6.3 per 1000), and Pima Indians have 3.7 times more amputations than do white persons [30].
  • Dogs were treated with amputation or tumor excision and limb-sparing followed by chemotherapy with cisplatin [31].
  • Control wrist and ankle, or elbow and knee blastemas treated with the retinoid solvent, dimethylsulphoxide, evoked intercalary regeneration as effectively as untreated blastemas, when grafted to the midstylopodial amputation surface of host limbs [32].

Gene context of Amputation

  • Analysis of NvK8 and NvK18 transcripts confirms that K8 and K18 are expressed in the blastemal cells of regenerating newt limbs and that their expression is first observed 3-5 days after amputation, when the blastemal cells start to proliferate under the influence of the nerve, whose presence is essential for regeneration to proceed [33].
  • RESULTS: At the amputation level, VEGF protein and VEGF and KDR mRNA levels in CLI limbs were similar to those in controls [34].
  • Physiological combinations of NGF, NT-3 and GDNF, to mimic a 'surrogate target organ', may provide a novel 'homeostatic' approach to prevent the development and ameliorate intractable neuropathic pain (e.g., at painful amputation stumps) [35].
  • METHODS: Rheumatoid synovial tissues were obtained from arthroplasty procedures on patients with late-stage rheumatoid arthritis; normal articular cartilage was obtained from lower limb amputations [36].
  • Comparing the cDNA sequences of 2'-5'-OAS L1, L2, and L3 isoforms, between susceptible and resistant strains, we identified a STOP codon in exon 4 of the gene encoding the L1 isoform in susceptible strains that can lead to a truncated form with amputation of one domain, whereas all resistant mice tested so far have a normal copy of this gene [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Amputation


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  8. Limbs generated at site of tail amputation in marbled balloon frog after vitamin A treatment. Mohanty-Hejmadi, P., Dutta, S.K., Mahapatra, P. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Coordinate and selective beta-tubulin gene expression associated with cilium formation in sea urchin embryos. Harlow, P., Nemer, M. Genes Dev. (1987) [Pubmed]
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  11. Clostridial myonecrosis ('gas gangrene') during cephalosporin prophylaxis. Mohr, J.A., Griffiths, W., Holm, R., Garcia-Moral, C., Flournoy, D.J. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
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  13. Failure of low dose heparin to prevent pulmonary embolism after hip surgery or above the knee amputation. Williams, J.W., Eikman, E.A., Greenberg, S.H., Hewitt, J.C., Lopez-Cuenca, E., Jones, G.P., Madden, J.A. Ann. Surg. (1978) [Pubmed]
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  16. Veterans Administration Cooperative Study on antiplatelet agents in diabetic patients after amputation for gangrene: II. Effects of aspirin and dipyridamole on atherosclerotic vascular disease rates. Colwell, J.A., Bingham, S.F., Abraira, C., Anderson, J.W., Comstock, J.P., Kwaan, H.C., Nuttall, F. Diabetes Care (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Lower extremity minor amputations: the roles of diabetes mellitus and timing of revascularization. Sheahan, M.G., Hamdan, A.D., Veraldi, J.R., McArthur, C.S., Skillman, J.J., Campbell, D.R., Scovell, S.D., Logerfo, F.W., Pomposelli, F.B. J. Vasc. Surg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Digit tip regeneration correlates with regions of Msx1 (Hox 7) expression in fetal and newborn mice. Reginelli, A.D., Wang, Y.Q., Sassoon, D., Muneoka, K. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Silencing of the hydra serine protease inhibitor Kazal1 gene mimics the human SPINK1 pancreatic phenotype. Chera, S., de Rosa, R., Miljkovic-Licina, M., Dobretz, K., Ghila, L., Kaloulis, K., Galliot, B. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Risk factors for lower extremity amputation in persons with diabetes. Selby, J.V., Zhang, D. Diabetes Care (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Alterations in macrophage signal transduction pathways mediate post-traumatic changes in macrophage function. Kelly, C.J., Gallagher, H., Wolf, B.A., Daly, J.M. J. Surg. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Propofol pharmacokinetics in a patient with bilateral leg amputation. Tsubokawa, T., Ohta, K., Tashiro, K., Ohmura, S., Yamamoto, K. Journal of anesthesia. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Randomised trial of epidural bupivacaine and morphine in prevention of stump and phantom pain in lower-limb amputation. Nikolajsen, L., Ilkjaer, S., Christensen, J.H., Krøner, K., Jensen, T.S. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Nerve growth factor stimulates the development of substance P in sensory ganglia. Kessler, J.A., Black, I.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
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  29. Capsaicin for treatment of post-traumatic amputation stump pain. Weintraub, M., Golik, A., Rubio, A. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
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  32. Retinoic acid proximalizes level-specific properties responsible for intercalary regeneration in axolotl limbs. Crawford, K., Stocum, D.L. Development (1988) [Pubmed]
  33. Keratin 8 and 18 expression in mesenchymal progenitor cells of regenerating limbs is associated with cell proliferation and differentiation. Corcoran, J.P., Ferretti, P. Dev. Dyn. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. VEGF and VEGF receptor expression in human chronic critical limb ischaemia. Choksy, S., Pockley, A.G., Wajeh, Y.E., Chan, P. European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery. (2004) [Pubmed]
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