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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Lower Extremity

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Disease relevance of Lower Extremity


Psychiatry related information on Lower Extremity


High impact information on Lower Extremity

  • Fifty-four women in the fluoride group and 24 in the placebo group had side effects sufficiently severe to warrant dose reduction; the major side effects were gastrointestinal symptoms and lower-extremity pain [11].
  • Muscle tone in the lower extremities was significantly decreased within 2 hours after baclofen injection and remained lower than baseline 8 hours afterward [12].
  • Treatment with imipramine hydrochloride or amitriptyline hydrochloride resulted in complete remission of lower extremity pains in all patients in 10 +/- 2 weeks, with concomitant relief of depression and return of depression test scores to 3 [13].
  • After 6 days of treatment, the mean lower extremity volume including xenograft tumor was 3744 mm3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3050 to 4437 mm3), 1442 mm3 (95% CI = 931 to 1758 mm3), and 346 mm3 (95% CI = 131 to 622 mm3) in mice treated with carrier alone or with imatinib at 50 mg/kg or at 100 mg/kg, respectively [14].
  • Intraarterial administration of adenosine into the forearm, during venous occlusion to prevent systemic effects, mimicked the response to exercise, increasing muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, lower limb microneurography) and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) at all doses studied (2, 3, and 4 mg) [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Lower Extremity


Biological context of Lower Extremity


Anatomical context of Lower Extremity


Associations of Lower Extremity with chemical compounds

  • Randomised trial of epidural bupivacaine and morphine in prevention of stump and phantom pain in lower-limb amputation [31].
  • Use of stable prostacyclin analogue ZK 36 374 to treat severe lower limb ischaemia [32].
  • Despite ancillary characteristics of cardioselectivity, intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, or combination with alpha-blockade, beta-blockers seem to impair the lower limb circulation in such patients, whereas captopril seems to preserve it, possibly by maintaining the collateral blood supply [33].
  • There was neither a reduction in the ability of the lower limb to extract epinephrine nor an increased norepinephrine outflow from the limb [34].
  • Compared with baseline, the EX group demonstrated significant increases in VO2max, upper and lower extremity strength, and significant decreases in skinfolds, triglyceride, and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) [35].

Gene context of Lower Extremity

  • TBX4 encodes a transcription factor with a strongly conserved DNA-binding T-box domain that is known to play a crucial role in lower limb development in chickens and mice [21].
  • CONCLUSION: HIV-1-infected women who developed breast enlargement and lower limb fat wasting while receiving ART had a favorable immunological profile with efficient IL-12 production and T-helper function, and with TNF-a production in the range of a HIV-negative reference population [36].
  • A 49-year-old patient with primary, recurrent melanoma on the lower extremity developed metastatic leptomeningeal melanoma that did not respond to treatment with radiation therapy or intrathecal interleukin 2 (IL-2) [37].
  • PURPOSE: The goal of the present study was to examine the role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in the development of varicose changes in the superficial veins of the lower extremity [38].
  • The authors hypothesize that spinal prostaglandin E2 increases with lower extremity vascular surgery and that spinal prostaglandin E2 decreases with intravenous postsurgical administration of either a mixed cyclooxygenase 1/2 inhibitor (ketorolac) or a cyclooxygenase 2 selective inhibitor (parecoxib) [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lower Extremity


  1. Use of protein-C concentrate, heparin, and haemodiafiltration in meningococcus-induced purpura fulminans. Smith, O.P., White, B., Vaughan, D., Rafferty, M., Claffey, L., Lyons, B., Casey, W. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Anomalies of the inferior vena cava in patients with iliac venous thrombosis. Obernosterer, A., Aschauer, M., Schnedl, W., Lipp, R.W. Ann. Intern. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Constitutive expression of phVEGF165 after intramuscular gene transfer promotes collateral vessel development in patients with critical limb ischemia. Baumgartner, I., Pieczek, A., Manor, O., Blair, R., Kearney, M., Walsh, K., Isner, J.M. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of volume loading and pressor agents in idiopathic orthostatic tachycardia. Jacob, G., Shannon, J.R., Black, B., Biaggioni, I., Mosqueda-Garcia, R., Robertson, R.M., Robertson, D. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Hexosaminidase A deficiency manifesting as spinal muscular atrophy of late onset. Karni, A., Navon, R., Sadeh, M. Ann. Neurol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Evidence for further genetic locus heterogeneity and confirmation of RLS-1 in restless legs syndrome. Winkelmann, J., Lichtner, P., Pütz, B., Trenkwalder, C., Hauk, S., Meitinger, T., Strom, T., Muller-Myhsok, B. Mov. Disord. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Sensori-motor function, gait patterns and falls in community-dwelling women. Lord, S.R., Lloyd, D.G., Li, S.K. Age and ageing. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Levodopa-induced dyskinesia and response fluctuations in primates rendered parkinsonian with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Clarke, C.E., Sambrook, M.A., Mitchell, I.J., Crossman, A.R. J. Neurol. Sci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. The joint effect of apolipoprotein E epsilon4 and MRI findings on lower-extremity function and decline in cognitive function. Carmelli, D., DeCarli, C., Swan, G.E., Kelly-Hayes, M., Wolf, P.A., Reed, T., Guralnik, J.M. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Lower extremity blood flow in healthy men: effect of smoking, cholesterol, and physical activity--a Doppler study. Asgeirsdóttir, L.P., Agnarsson, U., Jónsson, G.S. Angiology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of fluoride treatment on the fracture rate in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Riggs, B.L., Hodgson, S.F., O'Fallon, W.M., Chao, E.Y., Wahner, H.W., Muhs, J.M., Cedel, S.L., Melton, L.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Intrathecal baclofen for spasticity in cerebral palsy. Albright, A.L., Cervi, A., Singletary, J. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Depression masquerading as diabetic neuropathy. Turkington, R.W. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. Potential use of imatinib in Ewing's Sarcoma: evidence for in vitro and in vivo activity. Merchant, M.S., Woo, C.W., Mackall, C.L., Thiele, C.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Role of adenosine in the sympathetic activation produced by isometric exercise in humans. Costa, F., Biaggioni, I. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome of the lower limbs in renal transplant patients treated with cyclosporin A. Muñoz-Gomez, J., Collado, A., Gratacós, J., Campistol, J.M., Lomeña, F., Llena, J., Andreu, J. Arthritis Rheum. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Role of alendronate in therapy for posttraumatic complex regional pain syndrome type I of the lower extremity. Manicourt, D.H., Brasseur, J.P., Boutsen, Y., Depreseux, G., Devogelaer, J.P. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Increased urinary albumin excretion and its associations in the WHO Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes. Bennett, P.H., Lee, E.T., Lu, M., Keen, H., Fuller, J.H. Diabetologia (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Carbon dioxide gas as an arterial contrast agent. Seeger, J.M., Self, S., Harward, T.R., Flynn, T.C., Hawkins, I.F. Ann. Surg. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Stress fractures of the lower limbs in osteoporotic patients treated with fluoride. Orcel, P., de Vernejoul, M.C., Prier, A., Miravet, L., Kuntz, D., Kaplan, G. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Mutations in the human TBX4 gene cause small patella syndrome. Bongers, E.M., Duijf, P.H., van Beersum, S.E., Schoots, J., Van Kampen, A., Burckhardt, A., Hamel, B.C., Losan, F., Hoefsloot, L.H., Yntema, H.G., Knoers, N.V., van Bokhoven, H. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Differences in muscle blood flow in upper and lower extremities of patients after correction of coarctation of the aorta. Samánek, M., Goetzová, J., Fiserová, J., Skovránek, J. Circulation (1976) [Pubmed]
  23. Autonomic dysfunction in women with mitral valve prolapse syndrome. Gaffney, F.A., Karlsson, E.S., Campbell, W., Schutte, J.E., Nixon, J.V., Willerson, J.T., Blomqvist, C.G. Circulation (1979) [Pubmed]
  24. A simple and accurate new method for cytostatics dosimetry in isolation perfusion of the limbs based on exchangeable blood volume determination. Lejeune, F.J., Ghanem, G.E. Cancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Mechanism of acute lower extremity pain syndrome in fluoride-treated osteoporotic patients. O'Duffy, J.D., Wahner, H.W., O'Fallon, W.M., Johnson, K.A., Muhs, J.M., Beabout, J.W., Hodgson, S.F., Riggs, B.L. Am. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Prevention of bedrest-induced physical deconditioning by daily dobutamine infusions. Implications for drug-induced physical conditioning. Sullivan, M.J., Binkley, P.F., Unverferth, D.V., Ren, J.H., Boudoulas, H., Bashore, T.M., Merola, A.J., Leier, C.V. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Hereditary ataxias and paraplegias in Cantabria, Spain. An epidemiological and clinical study. Polo, J.M., Calleja, J., Combarros, O., Berciano, J. Brain (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Role of beta 2 integrins and ICAM-1 in lung injury following ischemia-reperfusion of rat hind limbs. Seekamp, A., Mulligan, M.S., Till, G.O., Smith, C.W., Miyasaka, M., Tamatani, T., Todd, R.F., Ward, P.A. Am. J. Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Carotid and lower extremity arterial disease in patients with renal artery atherosclerosis. Zierler, R.E., Bergelin, R.O., Polissar, N.L., Beach, K.W., Caps, M.T., Cantwell-Gab, K., Davidson, R.C., Strandness, D.E. Arch. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Are retinal arteriolar abnormalities related to atherosclerosis?: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Klein, R., Sharrett, A.R., Klein, B.E., Chambless, L.E., Cooper, L.S., Hubbard, L.D., Evans, G. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Randomised trial of epidural bupivacaine and morphine in prevention of stump and phantom pain in lower-limb amputation. Nikolajsen, L., Ilkjaer, S., Christensen, J.H., Krøner, K., Jensen, T.S. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Use of stable prostacyclin analogue ZK 36 374 to treat severe lower limb ischaemia. Chiesa, R., Vicari, A., Mari, G., Galimberti, M., Di Carlo, V., Pozza, G. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  33. Placebo-controlled comparison of captopril, atenolol, labetalol, and pindolol in hypertension complicated by intermittent claudication. Roberts, D.H., Tsao, Y., McLoughlin, G.A., Breckenridge, A. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. Reduced aortocoronary sinus extraction of epinephrine in patients with left ventricular failure secondary to long-term pressure or volume overload. Rose, C.P., Burgess, J.H., Cousineau, D. Circulation (1983) [Pubmed]
  35. Impact of aerobic training on fitness and quality of life in multiple sclerosis. Petajan, J.H., Gappmaier, E., White, A.T., Spencer, M.K., Mino, L., Hicks, R.W. Ann. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Cytokine production in women with antiretroviral treatment-associated breast fat accumulation and limb wasting. Galli, M., Gervasoni, C., Ridolfo, A.L., Trabattoni, D., Santambrogio, S., Vaccarezza, M., Meroni, L., Trifirò, G., Moroni, M., Norbiato, G., Clerici, M. AIDS (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Intrathecal cytotoxic T-cell immunotherapy for metastatic leptomeningeal melanoma. Clemons-Miller, A.R., Chatta, G.S., Hutchins, L., Angtuaco, E.J., Ravaggi, A., Santin, A.D., Cannon, M.J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 is increased in the saphenofemoral junction of patients with varices in the leg. Parra, J.R., Cambria, R.A., Hower, C.D., Dassow, M.S., Freischlag, J.A., Seabrook, G.R., Towne, J.B. J. Vasc. Surg. (1998) [Pubmed]
  39. Postoperative modulation of central nervous system prostaglandin E2 by cyclooxygenase inhibitors after vascular surgery. Reuben, S.S., Buvanendran, A., Kroin, J.S., Steinberg, R.B. Anesthesiology (2006) [Pubmed]
  40. Brain activation sequences following electrical limb stimulation of normal and paraplegic subjects. Ioannides, A.A., Liu, L., Khurshudyan, A., Bodley, R., Poghosyan, V., Shibata, T., Dammers, J., Jamous, A. Neuroimage (2002) [Pubmed]
  41. Noninvasive diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. Richards, K.L., Armstrong, J.D., Tikoff, G., Hershgold, E.J., Booth, J.L., Rampton, J.B. Arch. Intern. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  42. Delayed osteotomy but not fracture healing in pediatric osteogenesis imperfecta patients receiving pamidronate. Munns, C.F., Rauch, F., Zeitlin, L., Fassier, F., Glorieux, F.H. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  43. Increased vascularity detected by digital subtraction angiography after VEGF gene transfer to human lower limb artery: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded phase II study. Mäkinen, K., Manninen, H., Hedman, M., Matsi, P., Mussalo, H., Alhava, E., Ylä-Herttuala, S. Mol. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  44. Lower-limb vascularization in diabetic patients. Assessment by thallium-201 scanning coupled with exercise myocardial scintigraphy. Cosson, E., Paycha, F., Tellier, P., Sachs, R.N., Ramadan, A., Paries, J., Attali, J.R., Valensi, P. Diabetes Care (2001) [Pubmed]
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